Previous Update

Updates Index

(if there are any to speak of)
October 18 - 24, 2016

Seeking Caiaphas Links to Syphax

I'm aware of the invasion into Mosul, and events surrounding it, but this could be a prolonged affair with no prophecy value for months or years to come. I'll follow it, anyway, just in case.

The last section of the last update got on to the Joseph surname, and veered off-topic a little to the Roman-imperial line of Vespasia Polla. I've been familiar with heraldry for enough years that I can "read it" to a point because I've correctly identified some of the deepest roots of what's all behind it. The last section claimed (or suggested) that a Numidian king by the name of Syphax developed a family near Rome that led to, or at least connected with, emperor Vespasian. You'll need to read it because I can't repeat most of it here. The idea that came to mind is that Joseph Caiaphas (chief killer of Jesus) may have been born in the Rome area, from Syphax (completely wild, I know), and that the Rome-supported Herod, the first Herod, may have had something to do with bringing Caiaphas' father to Jerusalem. Nothing of Caiaphas' parentage is mentioned in the Bible, or elsewhere, so far as I've read.

The idea that Syphax's line came to birth Joseph Caiaphas and/or Josephus (the popular historian) is relatively new compared to an older claim that the Numidians from king Massena birthed and named the Maccabee king-priests of Israel. But the two theories are of obvious harmony. The last update centered much on the island of Brattia and its Tilurius river, but one island away from Brattia is Pharia, what I've suggested in the past to be at least joined to the entity that named Pharisees...highly suspect with the ones that named the Parisii Gorgons of Paris, where Caiaphas-suspect Chappes' and Levi's were first found.

The idea was presented that the Massena-Numidian line to a daughter of Julius Bassianus, in and/or around the Tilurius, had connection to the Syphax line at the Rome theater, but simultaneously had connection to the family of Vespasian and Titus (his emperor son) in Rieti, for this can explain why Josephus (Jonathan-Maccabee liner as per his own claim) was "adopted" by Titus. At one time, I assumed that Josephus simply purchased his salvation with Vespasian/Titus, but I'm now thinking that he and Caiaphas were related to the imperial family to begin with. I'm even entertaining the possibility that Josephus was deliberately causing the Jewish armies under his authority to lose when Vespasian's army came against him in Galilee. He admits causing his entire army to commit suicide, and that while he promised them to commit suicide himself in the end, after managing all their deaths, he did not keep the promise, but went over to the Romans instead. Of all the women that Titus could have chosen in all the Roman empire, he desired to marry Berenice Agrippa Herod. Another claim of the last chapter was that the PierLEONI Jews of Rome may have descended from Syphax / Caiaphas too, to the two Joseph surnames displayed by

I said that I would explore this area further in this chapter, hoping to enlarge the theory with some compelling arguments. It is assumed that several heraldic lions are traceable to the Pierleoni Jews, especially those of Leo's, Benedicts and Rita's. The earliest-known Pierleoni (not long before the first Templars) used Leo and Benedict as names, but also used Peter, the latter name suspect with a Petro line in the grandfather of Vespasian to Peter Pollock of Polloc in Renfrew. Polloc was almost-certainly named by a family out of Pola/Pula in Istria, and this suggests connection of Vespasia Polla to Istria and Este. There are many things to explore based on these points alone.

As was said, the Rita surname was first found in Rome, and uses a lion that connects to a Pierleoni lion, for it's in the colors of a Leo lion. The link of "VesPASIA" to Pasi's of Bologne (near Este) and PAISEly of Renfrew, both in the colors of the Este eagle, plays to the so-called "PIECE of wood" held by the Rita lion, for the Peace surname shows a PAISE variation. Moreover, the Peace/Paise surname shares a green Shield with Pollocks. Near the southern border of Hampshire, where Joseph's and Chappes suspects were first found, there is a Poole location (Dorset), and Poole's use the same lion as Rita's. By now, we already have enough evidence, to tweak our interest, for a Peter-Pollock link to Pierleoni, but Peter Pollock had traced first of all to Flavius Petro of Rieti (grandfather of Vespasian, the latter being a son of Vespasia Polla), and so the find of the Rita lion in the form of the Poole lion says it all. It means that I'm correctly reading the heraldry, otherwise these things are some giant coincidences.

The Poole write-up traces one member to marriage with a Chaucer, but then a Mr. Chaucer had married the sister of Catherine Roet. Moreover, Chalkers, first found in the same place as Chaucers, use three fesse bars in colors reversed from the Fuller bars, and Chaucers can therefore be using the bend of Jewish Pollocks. Further in the Poole write-up, a Peter de la Pole. The father of Peter Pollock, FULbert (no surname given or known), was traced with some evidence to Fullers, and finally Fullers were conjectured as a branch of Pulleys/Pullens/PULLERs, the latter using the same footless martlets as French Josephs, as well as using a pelican that is code for the Pellicans, first found in the same place (Maine) as French Josephs.

Prior to realizing that Rothschilds and Bauers were descended from Peter Pollock's Rothes castle, I had traced Fullers to RoqueFEUIL, the proto Rockefellers. It's fairly normal in the conspiracy world for Rothschilds to be linked to Rockefellers. The Arms of Roquefeuil uses billets in the colors of the Pollock saltire, and these billets are probably code for the vast treasure of QUINTus Caepio, long suspect as an ancestor of Joseph Caiaphas. A de-Pol family married a ruler of Foix-Candale, and while a house of Candale (also called Kendal) was founded by John of Gaunt, husband of Catherine Roet, Foix is beside Roquefeuil. It's feasible that Roquefeuil was named after Peter = rock.

Quintus' granddaughter, Servilia, married a family that adopted an Appius PULCher, suspect with the heraldic PELICan long before first finding the Pellican surname (by an accident) in the last update. Appius Pulcher was the father of one of the wives of emperor Augustus. While Augustus' bloodline ended at emperor Nero, Vespasian followed Nero. Why did Vespasian get the call to the throne? Was he connected in some way to the line of Augustus, or was he the enemy?

One can read online that a Fannius Caepio sought to usurp Augustus' throne (after the lifetime of Servilia). Servilia had a long-standing affair with Julius Caesar, Augustus' father by adoption. It has been my impression that Julius Caesar was able to conquer much of the world, as a dictator (in spite of the Roman Senate's objections) thanks to Servilia finding for him some of Quintus' treasure. Augustus' may have gotten some too, and, in fact, he may have been adopted because Julius knew he had some.

I started to assume that the Quint surname was from Quintus Caepio. Original heraldry was concerned only with the elite history of those who devised it, the Templars and Crusaders. In the time that it was devised, they probably knew their lineages back to pre-Christian times. The ruling elite are more prone to keeping tabs on their ancestors, but these were private things that wouldn't be publicized generally. The hints of whom was descended from whom can be gleaned in the symbolism, obviously, but the rulers may not have wanted the world at large to know that heraldry amounted to a family-tracking system, and so they explained heraldry as nothing really, having symbols chosen by whims of fancy, which is not at all the truth. Symbols were passed down, family to family, and symbols often reflected the surnames. Pelicans would be used for a Pelican-like surname, etc.

The Pulsiphers have a PULCipher variation that I've seen in print as a co-founding family of Romulus, in Wayne County, Michigan. Pulsiphers (same stag as Eustace's) are listed at house-of-names as Polesdons/Pullesdons, where "Poles" is the root term. How did a Pole surname develop nearly a Pelican look? Some of the variations resemble the Palles' (once showed the pelican) that should be in the "Pallescere" motto of Pulleys. By what coincidence do Pulsiphers/Polesdons use white stars in the colors of the Este horse heads while Fullers share a horse with the Este Crest? I assumed that stars are code for Este / Ishtar liners out of Istria and the Ister river, but this was before knowing of Istria's Pola/Pula. The Rothschilds/Rothsteins use an eight-pointed star, ancient symbol of Ishtar.

I'm suggesting that Fulbert's Pollocks in Renfrew had become merged with a line from Istria. Pula was alternatively known as Pietas-Julia, perhaps an ancient Peter line to Rieti. I can prove further that Fullers trace to Istria elements where Fullers share three red fesse (horizontal) bars with Sturs (first found in Hampshire), named after the Stur river that flows to Poole. I can see that Sturs, who have a related French branch showing "ESTERmeyer," can be a variation from "Istr(ia)." The Stowar variation of the Hampshire Sturs is probably evidence of linkage to Stewarts, for Fulbert was a close friend, if not a relative, of the proto-Stewart Alans (use one fesse bar in the colors of the Stur bars).

There is more. Jewish Pollocks share a bend, in colors reversed, from the same of Isters/Easters (label of three points suggests kin of La Bel's = Bellamys, for Fullers share the beacon with Belli's). Isters are said to be from the same place (Manche) as Sturs/Estermeyers, but they are also said to be from the Isle of Wight, in southern Hampshire, which is just offshore from Poole. I had traced proto-Alans to Alaunia of Manche, but that's the area where Masseys were first found that trace to Hamon de Massey of Cheshire. And Cheshire is where Pulsiphers/Polesdons were first found who not only use stars in colors reversed from the Hamon(d) stars, but share a stag (essentially) in Crest with Hamon(d)s. I have seen a stag symbol for Hamon de Massey. Scottish Pollocks use a motto term, "STRenue", suspect partly with Sturs.

The Isters are said to have received land from the king in Hampshire, where Josephs and Capelli-related Caplans were first found. You can read that Capelli's were first found in Ferrara but involved with a house of Este. The Capelli cap was in Hampshire as per the Crest of Bidens/Buttons, and the Charo/Claro surname was likewise first found in Ferrara while Josephs use a "charo" motto code.

The three roses in the Stur/Estermeyer Chief are in the Caesar Chief. Why? Ask Servilia Caepio. Quints are said to have been found in two places, Dorset (location of Poole), and Essex, location of Colchester. Este's were first found in Colchester. The Pulley/Puller motto is code for the Colp/Culp variation of Cope's (branch of Copps), and traces with little doubt to the COLAPis river, known also as the Kupa. The Colapis was closely related to the neighboring Una, the term that brought mythical Juno to Roman myth, and June's, because they were first found in the same place (Cambridge) as Julians, Capone's and Chapmans, are highly suspect with the Junius surname married by Servilia Caepio. Her official name was Caepionis, like "Capone." These are good reasons to view the Quints from Quintus Caepio, but as COLchester can be traced to COLapis, "Caepio" itself was suspect with "Kupa."

Near the mouth of the Una and Kupa there is a SERVitium location, likely the naming of the Serbs, but also of Servilia, you see. And before I knew either she or Quintus in order to trace them to the Colapis theater, I was tracing the serv-like motto terms of Cole's and Gore's to Servitium. Kyle's even trace themselves to king Cole, namer of Colchester. It's known that there were ancient COLchians between Pula and the Colapis.

Back to the Rita's. The first I ever started to track lions that held objects was that of Sforza's, but this was years before knowing the Rita's, or coming to the theories now under discussion. It just so happens that Sforza's were likewise first found in Rome, and both their lion and that of Rita's is on a blue Shield. The Sforza lion is that of Ferrari's, and Ferrara was wrapped up with the rulers of neighboring Este. French Pole's, first found in Picardy, origin of Catherine Roet's father, use the same lion as Sforza's, and holding an item (sword). The Sforza lion holds a flower called a "quince," and there is an elite Quince/Quincy surname. As Saer de Quincy ruled Winchester, and as Winchesters (Hampshire) share a gold fitchee cross in Crest with Quints, it seems obvious enough that Quince's were from Quintus Caepio. Before I knew of the Winchester lion, a reader emailed to say that she had a dream, as she awoke, of a blue lion with a name that was "something like Cappeo," her words. There was nothing else said of the dream. The only blue lion I knew of, at the time, that could fit her message was one in an Arms of Macclesfield (Cheshire), which has a "copia" motto term. The Rieti-based Reeds use "Pax copia."

Here is something new that was thought-out just now. It starts with the book of Reeds and Roets, not to mention that the Dutch benedict lion holds an unidentified object that looks like a book. The Book/Bogg surname shows the red stag head of reeds, but on a Coat much like that of Hamon(d)s. The hourglass in the book Crest is shared by Houstons/Hughstons, first found in Renfrewshire, and using the Stewart Shield. Therefore, the Books are linking to Massey and Pollock liners together, apparently, because the Book stars are colors reversed from those of Pulsiphers/Polesdons (Cheshire), and moreover both surnames use stags. While I have rejected the claim that Houstons were from a particular "Hugh," I think I am ready to adopt that idea, because the Book Coat is a good reflection of the BRANCH Coat, and I tend to trace Branch's to Hugh D'AVRANCHes, first Norman ruler of Cheshire, and uncle of the Massey liner, Ranulph le Meschin. In other words, Rieti suspects have once again touched upon the Pollock world. This is not the first indication I've had of a Hugh link to Alans of Dol (= Stewarts), for a Robert D'Avranches even married a woman of Dol.

If that's not enough, the Houstons use footless martlets in the colors of the same of Pulleys/Pullers and Josephs! It's becoming very plain that Pulley liners had merged somehow with the line of Joseph Caiaphas and/or Josephus. There is a Pully location on the north shore of lake Geneva. The hourglass is no doubt code for the Glass namers of Glasgow (chief city in Renfrewshire), and so the three Glass stars are expected to be the three of Branch's. Therefore, as Jewish Glass' use white wings, I'm guessing that they are the Masci wings. In fact, as one Moray surname was seen using a "DEUM Time" motto code that can connect to the "In time" of Houstons, it's clear that the Glass Crest shares the mermaid in particular of Morays. But as Speers, first found in Renfrewshire too, share the crossed spears of Bologna's Pasi's/Pace's, note that the same mermaid is in the Mason/Massin Crest, for the latter's motto is "DUM SPIRo SPERO." The Time/Timm surname was first found in the same place (Kent) as Masons/Massins. Plus, while Macey's use gauntlet gloves in honor of John of Gaunt, husband of Catherine Roet, the Speer boar heads are in the colors of the same of Roets.

I had traced Hitler's mother to the Masci's, in fact, of a hunch, and while her surname was POLZL (Polesdons?), Hitler's father also married a GLASSL surname. If that's not enough, Hitler's nephew, William Hitler, changed his surname after the war to Stewart-Houston. Why??? Apparently, Hitler's father was involved with Glasgow- and Pollock-related lines, all tracing to Vespasian, the fifth head of the dragon in Revelation 13.

An online article says that the Hampshire Josephs descended from a Hampshire man, Henry Joseph or Joseph Henry, I continually forget which. The Henrys not only share footless martlets, but they are red, as are the same of French Alans. The Henrys are said to be from an area of Brittany off the Meu river, which is near Dol.

I think I have well-established a Peter-Pollock trace to the Pierleoni of the Rita kind that was very likely a line from Vespasian's family, and yet a Caepio line was involved with that very thing that appears very connectable to Josephs. The Rita link to Quintus came about as per the Sforza lion's quince, having the potential to trace Caiaphas to Rome, as is the theory in the first place. One of the clues I have for a Caiaphas presence in Rome is the Kepke surname (Ukrainian), and linkable to Hebrons/HEPburns with a KEEP motto term. The Keep's use a "weaver's shuttle," and Webers (branch of Weavers) have a colors-reversed version of the Pepin / Pipe Coat that itself shares a white horse head with Hebrons and Este's. As Pepins use an "est" motto term, the Hepburns are connecting to the Este / Fuller horse, which may explain why Keeps share a red bend with Isters/Easters.

Pepins were Merovingians that established Charles Martel as king, and that's what the footless MARTLets are code for (a Martel line). The Weavers (Cheshire again, ho-hum) use an "Esto" motto term, as well as the Arms-of-Cheshire garbs that are in the colors of the same of the martlet liner Josephs. German Weavers are therefore likely using the Macey / Bright Coat, but their "segne" motto term can get us back to Julians because they and Segans/Sagans share the salamander in flames.

As I claim with strong evidence that Benjamites of Rimmon took their Rimmon term to the naming of Rome, it's interesting that the Bengs share an upright, white lion with Rita's, and moreover use a motto, "Teubor," almost "Tiber," the river that was home to the Pierleoni. The Beng quadrants can even be those of Chives', a Caiaphas-like term, and the moline cross of Chives' is in the black color of the same of Moline's, who are said round-about to be of Fulbert "the tanner," possibly the father or uncle of Fulbert, father of Pollocks. The Shewas variation of Chives' can indicate the Shawia Numidians to which Syphax may have belonged. As Kepke's are expected from a hard variation of "Syphax," note that Keeps use a bend in both colors of the Turin/Thurin bend, and that CHIVASSO is very near Turin, and that Turins/Thurins were first found in Aberdeenshire, where also a branch of Chives' is said to be. It's tending to connect Chives' with Keeps, which supports a Keep trace to Numidians.

While wondering how else to identify potential Syphax lines, The Happs/Apps came to mind with "Hep(burn)." They share white-on-red scallops both with Capes', and with Tailbois'. Just like that, a Hep-like term has led us to a Caiaphas-like surname, and Capes' were even first found in London, beside the Chapmans and Capone's. The "speravi" motto term of Happs/Apps is like the "Sperabo" motto of Annans, and this is where it gets Hannibal-interesting (Syphax was an supporter of Hannibal). To explain why Hannibal would do something so "crazy" as to take his army through France, and then across the Alps in a surprise attack at the Trebia river, I reasoned that he had relatives there, perhaps even an entire people group that named him. The Ananes, that is, who were at the Trebia theater. Did Hannibal attack that river to lay a gift down for the Ananes? The Hannibal surname is listed with ANNAbels. Did the Ananes help Hannibal in securing Gauls of France and Italy for the war? Were the Laevi brought into the alliance?

Why do Jewish Levi's use lions, and why are they in Pale (vertical)? Are they a colors-reversed version of the Tailer lions in pale? The Levi lions are "passant," probably part code for the Pass/Pascal / Pasi/Pascel bloodline, for the same lion, in the same colors, is in the Pass/Pascal Coat. As Tailers were close to a Bassus > Bassianus line (Base's/BAISE's, like "Paise(ly), use two lions in pale too), might Pass' and Pasi's have been a Bassianus branch? I've neglected to mention this potential match between the Base/Paise and Levi lions until now, which looks like it's linking Levi's to Laevillus, who married Quadratilla Bassus. As Chads are likely Chadwicks, and as the latter share the Geddes escutcheon, I would suggest that Chads trace with Geddes to "Cetis," where the Bassus line came to rule!

It just so happens that the red, spread eagles in the Pass/Pascal Coat are used also be Reeds, and this connects to the Rieti-Pasi combination that I predict from Vespasian's family. One can get the impression that Rieti elements were linked to Laevi Gauls. We will bump into the Chappes' momentarily by following Reed-family connections, but let's ask: aren't Caiaphas liners predicted to find Levi liners for marriages?

By the way, the Reed write-up claims that a sept of a mother-trunk family is entitled to its Clan Badge or Crest (leaves out symbols in the Shield).

"Pascal" is a Jewish term / theme. As French Pascals use a "mea" motto term, the English Pascal cross is a candidate for the Mea/Meigh cross in colors reversed. The latter's cross is identical to that of Macclesfields, and "copia" is a motto term in an Arms of Macclesfield as well as in the Reed motto.

I've read that Pollocks are descended from Clovis, son of CHILDeric (married BASINa), indicating that the Reed / Pass eagles may be those of CHILDs. The Child eagles are in the colors of the Piast eagles, and Piasts were founded by Mieszko of POLand. The Masci wings are in the colors of the Piast eagle too, making "Mieszko" suspect as a Masci liner. The old Masci wing design was showing in the French GOBEL Coat (looks like a Macey variation) while the Piasts are said to be from a GOPLO mouse tower (= myth theme).

Reeds are said to be a sept of Robertsons, and when we go to the Robertson page, they turn out to be royal Duncans, whom I know to be descended from Chads. From the early Robertson line came Robert of STRUAN (village in Perthshire, and a second location of the same name on Skye), much like the "strenue" motto term of Pollocks. As I expect English Reeds to be sharing the gold saltire of Pollocks, I would suggest that the Pollock motto term is definitely for Robert of Struan, for even the second Pollock (Peter's brother), was Robert. And he was married to a daughter of Eschyna de Molle, while she was married to a Robert Croce while Croce's use a potent cross just like the one (different background color) of Chads (both crosses have double arms at the ends).

The Robertsons are said to have controlled Atholl (Perthshire), which I view as named from Athelings = Saxons. Fulbert (progenitor of Pollocks) was "the Saxon," and is suspect with Edith of POLESworth, a Saxon slated to marry a Sitric character (Dane viking), grandfather of a king Maccus in the time of Rollo i.e. before Fulbert's birth. Maccus was traced very well to Maxwells, the mother trunk of Pollocks, and to the Macie's/Margys who share the raven with Mea's/MIEGHS and Peters. As Maccus and/or his brother ruled the Isle of Man, it supported an old theory I had posed: that MANCHe, Normandy home of Masseys and proto-Alans, was named by the MANX peoples on the Isle of Man. Let's not forget the POLESdons, first found in Cheshire. Eschyna de Molle not only married Robert Croce, but an Alan of the royal-Stewarts-to-be (it was these very Alans who were associated/related with Fulbert the Saxon). Croce's surname has also been spelled, "Croc," and Irish Crocs/Croke's use a MAUNCH, otherwise called a sleeve.

The proto-Alans of Maunch lived at Alaunia, beside CROCiatonum. That explains the Crocs. Scottish Crocs, first found in Shropshire, mention a Robert Croc as a retainer of Walter Alan, High Steward of Scotland = the royal-Stewarts-to-be. As this Robert is said to have held lands in Renfrewshire, he must have been Eschyna's husband. The Scottish Crocs are using the French-Alan martlets in colors reversed, but as the Alan martlets are predicted to be those of Henrys, note that the Brittany Henrys are said to be from lands on/off the Mea-like Meu river. I feel sure that Mea's were named after the Meu, or vice versa, because a Jugon location is nearby while Juggs are listed with Judds that share the white-on-red boar heads of Mea's. The Molle's use a white boar head too. The "BENIGno" motto term of Mea's/Meighs may be for the Bengs, whose Coat has been suspect with that of MOLine-using Chives'.

[Insert -- As an interesting discovery, the Schiens, like "ESCHYNa," are listed with the Shands/Schands that share the giant boar head of Molle's. The Skene's/Skins, first found in the same place (Aberdeenshire) as Schiens/Schands, use swords because they are said to be named after swords (I don't buy it). This tends to verify that the SCIMitar sword (a curved one, at times called a Saxon sword) is code for the SCHIM variation of Schiens. Amazingly, the Skene/Skin write-up traces to Struan Robertson. As Reeds came from Robertsons, the red Molle eagle must be that of Reeds, meaning that Molle's connected with Rieti liners. The ErSKIN's (kin of Mars), first found in Renfrewshire and sharing the erect sword with Skins, have an ESKIN variation to which I once traced "Eschyna." It doesn't look like a contradiction to trace her name also to Schiens. The Erskins are in Bistone and Bessin colors. Many years ago, before knowing any part of this paragraph, aside from the Erskin relations to the rulers of Mar, and before knowing that the Bistones of Africa worshipped Ares as an erect sword, I traced ERSkin's to "Ares" because he became the Roman Mars. Therefore, the Skins were not named after a sword, but were a short-form of "ErSKIN/ESKIN."

The paragraph above is an insert days after writing in this section. I saw the Schien surname on an item upon the kitchen counter, and decided to see whether it was a Skin branch. I thereby find, now, that the Molle's (Post colors), which were not loaded previously, use a "post" motto term, and that English Posts (Hampshire, beside Poole) use the large Poole / Rita lion. The Paust variation may be indication of Paise / Paisley liners. German Posts use the same lion but with a crown. Molle's are said to have named Mollesworth, Huntingdonshire, which should explain the Post hunting horn (shared in white by Pollocks).

Plus, I traced mythical Mars to the Marsi of Abruzzo, at lake Fucino, near the source of the Salto river that named the Sale's/Salletts...who happen to share the black-on-white bend of Bistone's / Bessins. The Turano flows beside the Salto, and so let's repeat that the Turins/Thurins (and Petersons) were first found in Aberdeenshire i.e. same as Schiens and Skins. Thus, the Marsi Italians trace to Mar of Scotland. I had trace Marsi to the Mercians of England, and here we find a "merces" motto term with the Skene's/Skins. The latter are said to have been barons for the earldom of Mar. The Erskins share a black-on-white pale bar with Crux's/Crucks (Pense eagle?), suggesting a branch of Crocs / Croce's.

There is more to insert here. The "pense" motto term of Erskins gets a surname said to be from mount PINCon (Lisieux), and while I trace RENfrew to the namers of the Reno river, the Pincs share red-on-white lozenges with Reno's. As I identify Pendragons as Merovingians in Britain, I suggest that Pense's are using a version of the Child Coat. They throw in some blue, probably to match the Molle's / Posts. If the white Pense eagle is on the Crux pale bar, it;s notable that Tailers share three white symbols on the same-colored pale bar, for Talbots are said to be from barons around Lisieux. As a Hugh Talbot managed the castle at Plessis, the Plessis lions (Peterson-Coat version?) are likely the Tailer (and/or Peterson) lions, yet they are also in the colors of the Raines lions, and I think that Raines' were part of the Reno > Renfrew line.

The Mr. Pynsent in the Pense write-up suggests a branch of Vincents (Pense / Molle colors), for the latter are said to be from Le Havre, near the mouth of the Touques (Lisieux is at the Touques). In fact, the Vincents are said to be at Swinford (Leicestershire), and while Catherine Roet married Mr. Swinford, as well as John of Gaunt/Ghent, the Pense's are sharing the Dutch-Ghent fesse. Swinfords use the boar, the Molle / Schien symbol. I say Pense's are allowed to use the gyronny pattern (that they show) because John of Gaunt was at Candale, beside GYRONny-using GIRONde, on the GARONNe river. There was a de-Pol family of Foix-Candale that should apply.

Pense's are said to be closely associated with CHATham, and while Vincents are from CRAMenil, there is a CAT in the Crest of the Croms/Crums who share the three quatrefoils of Vincents. End Insert]

One can glean the Meighs were Macclesfields, and as Macclesfield is in Cheshire while Maccus went to a meeting with Saxons in Cheshire, I reason that Masci / Massey liners of Cheshire were either closely related to Maccus, or descended from him. Rollo was himself a Dane, and so we might view Maccus as a Norman invader (between Ireland and Scotland) who parted company from Normandy. One Peter Crest as a gold lion, found also in the Mea/Meigh Crest, and along with the gold one, the Peter Crest shows a blue lion too, found in the Arms of Macclesfield. And Peters even use mascles (hollow diamonds). Therefore, if Pollocks were sept of Macclesfields, they get to use the Macclesfield symbol(s). The early name of Macclesfield was MAKESlefield, like some Maxwell variations such as MAKESwells, and descending from MACCUSweils. Maxwells were of the Berwick area, where Polworths were first found. This is all to say that the village of Polloc may have been named after a Polesworth element to which Fulbert belonged. "Edith" is a typical Atheling name, like EDmond and EDward.

As the Pollock saltire (x shape) is a form of the similar cross (+ shape) that is the Arms of Pola in Istria, it seems that Fulbert may have been the son of a Pola line. As he lived in Shropshire before moving to the Polloc area, it's notable that Shropshire is beside Cheshire, making Polesdons suspect with his parent (or wife?). I would suggest that Fulbert's parent mother

French Pilate's/Pilotte's are traced to "stake" or "pile", very interesting where Edith of Polesworth was the line of Polworths, for they use piles. The Pile surname itself uses piles, in Pilotte colors, and the cups of English Pilotte's can be code for the Cup variation of Cope's/Colps, whom I see in the motto of Pulleys/Pullers and Patents. French Pile's use the same black lion as the Lincolnshire Peters. It's also interesting that French Messier's and Pilote's/Pilotte's were first found in the same place while English Messier's and Pilotte's were first found in the same place (Lincolnshire, home of le-Meschin's wife). The French Messier's use the saltire that was the flag of Mercia, and Edith of Polesworth is said to be Mercian. I had traced Mercians to the Marsi of Abruzzo years before knowing of Rieti, and it just so happens that the Marsi lived very near to the sources of the Salto and Turano rivers that flow through Rieti. Potent-liner Avezzano is much closer to the Marsi than Rieti, and is on the Turano. The Robertsons above use a "merces" motto term, and the Guiscards below use "mercy."

The Polworth piles are in the colors and configuration used by Guiscards, first found in Stirling (i.e. beside Reeds of Perthshire), as were the Scottish Chappes' and the Stirlings/STURlings. The Sturlings, suspect for the reasons above from Istria, share the Moor head with the French Chappes', first found in the same place as French Levi's that can, of course, be a branch of the Jewish Levi's now linking to Pass'/Pascals out of BOLOGna, a Polloc-like term. This can not only indicate that Pula in Istria named Bologna, or vice versa, but that Struan (Perthshire) was itself named after a variation of Istria. The "my" motto term of Guiscards may be code for the My variation of Mea's/Meighs that were mentioned above as per the Pass/Pascal motto. If correct that Meighs are Macclesfields (they use the same cross in the same colors), it seems undeniable that Vespasian liners were in Macclesfield and amongst the Maxwells. There are many mysteries to be solved in all of this.

The Ore's, first found in Renfrewshire, use the same-style piles as Polworths, and in colors reversed, and use two motto terms indicative of Bononia, the alternative name of Bologna. Who would have thought that heraldry could tell stories such as these? There is a cornuCOPIA in the Ore Crest as evidence of linkage to the Macclesfield / Reed motto. And, of course, the motto term is itself a likely code for Cope's/Cups. The latter are said to be from Colp in Aberdeenshire, and Aberdeenshire is where Reeds were first found.

The red stag head used by Reeds (and Books) is probably that of Celts/Colts (from Mont Pilat in France), for they were first found in Perthshire (traces to Perdrix, one of the peaks of Mont Pilat), as were Rollo's who use (as the clan badge) the same stag head (in brown) along with a "passe" motto term that, as a surname, is listed with Pass'/Pascals. The Kelts (version of the Book Coat) were likewise first found in Perthshire, and as the Duncan branch of Robertsons (white wolf heads) was in Perthshire, I would suggest that DunKELD, the official name of the Duncan royals, was partly in honor of Celts / Kelts.

The Duncan line also used DunCHAD. We now have a Rieti-line link to potent-liner Chads as well as to a line of Pontius Pilate (the Celts/Colts use the Pilate pheon). The Shaws, likewise first found in Perthshire, use the Pilotte cups in the same colors. Wikipedia claimed that Pontius Pilate's mother was a Pict in Perthshire, according to some, and heraldry bears this out.

All good, but what in this picture traced Rieti / Pollock elements to Rome's Pierleoni? Well, the Pole/Poole lion does, and Poole is on the coast from the Isle of Wight, itself the location of Cowes, and there is a Cowes surname using piles (but called pennants). The Cowes piles are in the colors, and share the same positioning, as the Polworth piles. Moreover, instead of the engrailed border feature upon these piles (used by Polworths and Guiscards), the Cowes' use a wavy border, as does the bend of Jewish Pollocks.

Let's go back to the Alan-related Crocs. Crockers are said to be from Anglo-Saxons, and were first found in the same place (Devon) as English Stewarts (lion) and Maine's. As the latter are using the Perche chevrons, I'd say that the red crescent of Crocks is that of the Perche BELLamys (known kin of Alans). The Crockers use one of the two Maine chevrons, and both Coats use the colors and format of Exeters (city in Devon), though the latter use BELLs (see also the colors and format of Walsh's). If correct that Maine's can be lumped into this picture, it reminds that the French Joseph's, first found in Maine, share the martlet with Crocs. The best way I can think of to link Josephs to the picture at hand is where English Josephs (green PERCHEvron) were first found in the same place as Cowes, and right beside Poole. As Exeters come up as "Exter," the "AudACTER" motto term of Pollocks may be for an Exeter branch.

The Annans share the saltire and Chief of Tailbois' while the Tailbois Chief uses the Happs/Apps scallops. It's good argumentation for a Tilurius-river link to Placentia. Happs/Apps are in Annas colors, and Annas' use a giant star in the colors of the Tryst stars while Hepburns (same colors) use the motto, "Keep tryst." The Tryst motto term, "TREPidum," may even be part code for a Trebia branch, for example the Trips or Trope's/Drops. "TrepiDUM" can also be code for a DUMfries entity, for Annan(dale) is in Dumfries. Recall the "DUM spiro spero" of the Mason/Massin Numidians, for Croce's use "dum spero." As Croce's were from Manche's Crociatonum, I'm seeing Pasi liners, perhaps even the Speers, through Manche. As Bellamys married Masseys while Crocs may be using the Bellamy crescent, note that Speers (Renfrewshire) use nearly the Molle boar head as well as red-on-white crescents, the Croc symbol. The Speer boar heads are in the colors of the same of Roets, and should be the symbol of Catherine Roet's first husband. The Roet Coat is much like the Caplan Coat.

How many skinny bends have you seen? They are very rare. But the Charo's/Claro's and Spikers both use a blue one. If Spice's/Spicers are Syphax liners, perhaps also Spike's and Spikers. Spikers show fretty (lattice), yet their description is: "Red shield with a silver fret, a gold chief with a red leopard, overall a blue bend." A fret is a mascle combined with a saltire, and so we hereby learn that a fret is interchangeable with fretty. What is the significance of a Spiker link to Charo's/Claro's? It's that Josephs use both a "charo" and a "mago" motto term, and while Mago was Hannibal's brother Syphax was Hannibal's ally (on and off, anyway). The Shield-and-Chief color combination of Spikers is that also of the Annas'.

Spiker variations include Spingel and Pickernell. As Barca liners may have named Berks and Berkshire, what about Pickers/Packers (Moor head) being first found in Berkshire (where fretty-using Modens/Modeys were first found)? Hannibal had conquered Modena. Berkeleys (patees) are said to BARKlays too. English Barkers must be using the Poole lion round-about, and they show a "vide" motto term. As Barkers show scallops too, I would trace the Berkeley patees, in the colors of the Massena patees, to Messina of Sicily. The Berkeley patees are also in the colors of the Peck/Pek patees. It brings us close to where we could expect Carthaginians.

Barks use larks, the Lark Coat is nearly a version of the Pratt Coat (more mascles); both surnames use white martlets inside black, so-called pellets = Pilate suspects because Pellets use the Pilotte cups in the same colors...but they are also the cups of the Shaw-Numidian line. The Pratum location of Pratts is almost like the "pratis" motto term of Rieti. Peacocks, reportedly a sept of Pollocks, share mascles within roundels with Pratts and Larks.

By what coincidence do Spikes show the same double-headed eagle design as Maxwells. By what coincidence do Belgian Pratts use the Annan(dale) Coat as used by the Arms of Ayrshire (= Shawia stomping grounds)? Or, as Pratts show the Annandale-Coat version as used by Scottish Bruce's, by what coincidence do Bruce's trace to "Abruzzo," up-the-Turano-river way. Scottish Turins/Thurins even use one bend -- half a saltire -- in the colors of the Bruce saltire.

Note that the flag of Rieti has one purple half, the color of the Shield of English Pace's (Cheshire).

The Turano river through Rieti traces well to the naming of the Durance (home of the Salyes Ligures), and to the Sale's/Salletts (Cheshire) suspect with the Salto river in Rieti. Spice's/Spicers use towers that are sometimes code for turris-like surnames, and Cups/Cope's are said to be from Colp of Aberdeenshire, the latter being where Turins/Thurins were first found. The Spice Crest is a "fire ball," while Balls/Balders (another fire ball) were first found, once again, in Cheshire. Balls use a "FULcrum" motto term, perhaps for Fulbert liners. There was evidence in the insert above that Eschyna de Molle was a Fulbert liner, and Eskins then showed a "pense" motto term while Pense's turned out to be kin of Crums/Croms (in Picker/Packer and Peck colors), who were first found in Berkshire.

We can now assume that the "PAX copia" of Reeds is partly for the Picker/Pecker/Packer bloodline, and PEACocks might just have been Peaks/Peks (share patees with Pecks/Peks), or something similar. It may be a clever motto because it's translated, "PEACE, plenty," very-possibly code for the same as the Rita "piece of wood." I'm not familiar with Peaks/Peks, but as they were first found in Staffordshire, home of St. Chad, it doesn't appear coincidental that Pecks/Peks use patees in the colors of the Chad patees. This recalls that Reeds are said to be squarely from DunCHADs. The Patti area of Sicily was a neighbor to Calabria, location of several potent crosses. English Packs can be using the Saluzzo Shield, for Saluzzo is suspect with the Salyes so as to trace to the Salto. The Majors/Magors/Mayers (anchor), who may be from Mago, are using a colors-reversed version of the Anchor Coat, and the English Packs show only anchors.

Were we convinced that Charo's/Claro's were kin to Spikers/Pickernells? Charo's/Claro's share a red-on-gold bull with French Packs/Pacs. Surprise. Bachs use a bull but call it a steer. I recognize the oak tree behind the Pack bull as being in the colors of the Maio oak, and that might be a variation of "Mago." In fact, a Maja goddess is said to be associated with mount Maiella in Abruzzo.

I had read that the Eburovices Gauls, who were definitely living in Normandy's Evreux, were also in Brixia, but then the article that said so disappeared, and no others could be found saying the same. It may have been due to my mentioning it, for I feel that some Masonic element(s) was directed to keep tabs on my work and to thwart it where necessary. Suddenly, starting in early 2013, all sorts of houseofnames Coats started to undergo symbol and design changes, after I was using identical symbols and designs as part of the proof of kinship. Most surnames (owned originally by one individual and therefore going to one bloodline, not to all identical surnames on a broad level) can use multiple symbols depending on what kin they choose to be represented by. Someone of importance may have been asking houseofnames to change symbols and designs to thwart some of my links. I wrote in, concerned about this, but the company did not help to rectify it, nor did it want to give an alternative page that performed the same service. From the home page of this company, one could not find the alternative page easily, as though it were being hidden from readers. With some determination, I was able to find it (below). It wasn't until Nicholas de Vere von Drakenberg died, about one year after contacting me by email, that all changes stopped taking place. I rarely record changes now (I have a page where changes are recorded).

The Bruce's are said to be possibly descended from BRIX's (why doesn't clan Bruce just reveal their roots and put an end to the questions and doubts?), and this could certainly trace to BRIXia, for it uses a blue-on-white lion, colors reversed from the Bruce of Yorkshire lion. Moreover, Brixia has an alternative name of BREScia. If that's not enough, Brescia is near the ANANes Gauls while the Bruce's of Yorkshire moved it to ANNAN, also called Annandale. Plus, one website thinks the Bruce lion is from Louvain, in Belgium, while it's Belgian Pratts who use the Annandale Coat in the colors used for it by Bruce's. But there is more, because York was anciently EBORACUM, and the Eburovices were alternatively called, EBROICUM. Yet no one that I've read makes the Eburovices connection to the naming of York. No Nordic would make the link of Evreux's Eburovices to the two Abreu/Abruzzo lions, in the same colors as the two leopards in the Arms of Normandy. I therefore traced these Eburo peoples to "ABRuzzo," and assumed that they were in Normandy before Rollo conquered the land. I also assumed that either Rollo, or a near heir, married the Eburovices, and considered them the chief family in Normandy when that place chose it's official symbolism. Later, I was finding all sorts of Norman links to Italians.

The PRESleys (like "Brescia") are also PRIESTlys, and while they use both symbols of the Abreu's/Abruzzo's, in the same colors, Talbots use a "prest" motto term, as well as an upright lion that could be a colors-reversed version of the gold-on-red Abreu lions, for while the Talbot lion is identical to one shown for Ranulph le Meschin (married Taillebois) at his Wikipedia article, his son was given a Gernon surname, now expected to be of the Gournay line of Talbots, which uses two lion's in the colors of the Abreu lions, and are in a PASSant position like those in the Arms of Normandy. I figure that "pasSANT" is double code, one for the Saint variation of Sinclairs or the Sants (Yorkshire) listed with the Saints. . Moreover, the father of Ranulph le Meschin was "of BRIQUESsart," a potential Brixia liner. German Brix's share pierced stars with Maceys, in the colors of the Hamon(d) stars.

The Presley/Priestly symbol shown in its chevron was one of the many that changed. I have it recorded that this Presley symbol was identical to the so-called caltrop/caltrap of Kerricks, yet the two symbols were not given the same name. The Presley symbol was called a "grappling hook," but is now called a "grappling iron," yet the symbol changed to the hooks now showing. It means that Presleys were married to both Hooks and Irons, as well as to a Grapp-like surname suspect with Agrippa liners, such as Julius Agrippa, uncle of Julius Bassianus.

After the Presley symbol changed, not yet knowing why Presleys should be connected to Kerricks, I discovered the trace of Craigs > Carricks to "ACRAGas," now Agrigento in southern Sicily. By that time, I was claiming that the Drake motto was part code for L'Aquila, the modern Abruzzo capital. After that, and not before, I found that the river through Agrigento was the Drago, and it just so happens that the so-called "cockatrice" (in red) in the Presley Crest is a version of the red wyvern dragon of Drake's, thus assuring that Drake's were Abruzzo liners of the Presley kind, and in the meantime assuring that Presleys were Abreu/Abruzzo liners.

After making that discovery, and poking upon the Agrigento topic, which was growing larger, I found a nearby Mosca family that has a variation just like another motto term of Drake's. The latter are suspect with Drakenberg, a royal-witchcraft cult that was led by Nicholas de Vere von Drakenberg. Vere's are from Manche, as were Masseys, and the two share virtually the same Coat. My mother is a Massey liner, born in Abruzzo, and the Shawia-liner Sheaves/Chiava's were first found in Abruzzo. My Massey / Masci lines married Ferrari's, and the Mosca's of the Agrigento area married MonteChiaro (near Agrigento) while Chiaro's are listed with Charos'/Claro's, first found in Ferrara, and beloved by Josephs. The Abreu write-up speaks on a branch from "Bruggia of Bruzi in Ferrara," while the Bruce's are thought to be from Bruges/Bruge, Belgium. It could indicate that the Flanders connection to the Normans, when the two were the main elements of Templarism / Crusaders, were both Abreu liners to begin with. That is, the Caiaphas line that linked to the Normans came from Abreu's somehow, a good idea where Abreu's were named after Hebrews (not necessarily Israelites).

I kid you not, I entered the Presley topic not recalling that the surname uses a "ReSPICE" motto term. It recalls that both Spikers/Pickernells and Charo's/Claro's use a thin, blue bend. Is this more evidence that Caiaphas liners were Syphax Numidians? The Sheaves'/CHIAVA's have a CHIAPPoni variation, like "Capone," and the English Capone's use the colors and format of Spice's, I kid you not, and the Spice's share the tower with Presleys and Abreu's! I get it. I did not know of Pellicans until the last update, and here I find that Pellicans (same place as Josephs) use a giant version of the white-on-red tower of Abreu's. The first-listed Pellican variation is PelliQUIN (Quint merger?), but they also show "PEIKan," possible indication of linkage to Pek / Pecker liners; both in Pellican colors, as are Polish Packs/PACEwicze's. As English pace's were first found in the same place as Masseys, it's notable that Pacewicze's share the Massey fleur.

As Masci's are part of the Numidians, let's add that Portuguese Abreu's share single wings with Masci's, and that one of the white-on-red Masci wings (Massey-horse colors) was changed to gold on red (Massey quadrant colors), the color of the Abreu wings. Plus, The Masons/Massins were first found in the same place as Louvains, and houseofnames fails to give a Louvain surname of Belgium, possibly by request. The Louvain lion is known to be used by Percy's, first found in Yorkshire (i.e. same as blue-lion Bruce's).

Repeat: "German Brix's share pierced stars with Maceys, in the colors of the Hamon(d) stars." This is to explain the Briquessart surname of le-Meschin's family. German Brix's have a Coat that is a colors-reversed version of the Polesdon Coat, the surname with a Pulsipher variation that must be a branch of the PULCiphers who co-founded Romulus in Wayne County, Michigan. I had read that the other co-founders were Pullens, and they are listed with Pulleys/Pullers that use the PELICan and the martlets (same colors too) of the Josephs that were first found in the same place as Pellicans. Plus, as per Wayne County, Wayne's share gauntlet gloves with Macie's, and a chevron in the colors of the Presley chevron...which is in the colors of the Child chevron, notable because the Child eagles are suspect with the same-colored eagle wings of Masci's.

Avezzano and Rieti are in Sabina, and Rieti is the Sabina capital, explaining why Flavius Petro named his son, Titus Flavius Sabina (husband of Vespasia Polla). It just so happens that Pulleys/Pullens share the red-on-white scallop with Sabine's while the latter use two pierced stars in Chief, in the colors of the pierced stars of German Brix's, nailing the Brixia / Bruce line with Vespasian's family, and with the Sabina area, not far out from the Abruzzo border. But the Sabine Crest is even a red bull, the color of the Charo/Claro bull, nailing the Sabina link to Josephs (I claimed that he must trace to Avezzano). The Sabine Chief is a version of the Palin/Pauley Coat, and the latter are said to be from Dorset, location of Poole, wherefore Palins are identified strongly as a Pullen branch...from Vespasia Polla in Rieti. The heraldic masters knew all of this, didn't they? The Palin lion becomes a Peter-lion candidate. The same lion is in the Welsh Robert Coat, and while Roberts are said to be from a Howell character, the Welsh Howells share the white-on-red tower with Pellicans (and Presleys). See also the Thor(n) tower.

Welsh Powells are said to derive in "ap-Howell," but I've not liked that theory, and have seen links instead to the Pavelli homeland (Picardy) of Palins/Pawleys. However, Howells may be a branch of Powells. Powells use a counterchanged lion half in the colors of the same-positioned Palin lion, and it's counterchanged in colors reversed from the Welsh Robert lion, the Roberts possibly being a branch of the Reed-related Robertsons. In other words, Pellicans look related to, or a branch of, Powell-Howell liners. English Roberts are back to the same stars as Palins and Sabina's, while French Roberts share blue "vair fur" in the Chief with the Quint Chief.

One can see how Powell liners, or the Pauley variation of Palins, can lead to the Paul surname (Yorkshire), which uses a "rePUBLICa" motto term that brings PUBLIUS PULCher to mind. In my opinion, he was after the gold of Quintus Caepio, and thus formed a friendship with Brogitarus. French Pauls/Pohls/Pole's were first found in Picardy. Pavers, possibly from Picardy's Pavelli, were likewise first found in Yorkshire. The Pavers happen to use three lozenges, fesse-wise, in colors reversed to the same of Brix's. It may mean that the black-on-white lion cropping up a few times may be a black version of the blue-on-white Bruce lion, and in the black of the Porcia boar. The Paver lozenges are called, fusils, as code for the lozenge-using Fusils/Fuziers. The latter's lozenges are half the colors of the Brix lozenges, and in both colors of the same of Percy's (Yorkshire), the ones who used the Louvain lion alternatively (because they were related to Louvains as fact). The Percy's also married the line of FitzAlan-Saluzzo.

The Percy write-up says that a piece of Yorkshire (Lofthouse) was transferred to a Percy family by Hugh Lupus, bringing to mind the white wolf heads of Scarfs (Yorkshire again), in both colors of the Hugh-Lupus wolf head.

Eburacum (old name of York) is said to be named after a boar, but I challenge that and say that some Eburovices used the boar, for a German Eber surname uses a boar. That is, York was named after the Eburo peoples, not the boar. And the Eber boar is black, as is the Porcia boar, while Wikipedia's article on PORCIUS Cato once said that he lived as a youth in Abruzzo. This was removed from the article after I mentioned it several times, and changed to his owning land in Sabina. The two pieces of data are of the same storyline as what's under discussion. The two Porcia boars are upright and facing one another in what's often called, combatant," but this is the position of the two, upright Abreu lions.

The Porcia's are said to be from Porci's, and there is an additional Porci Coat (Abreu colors) at houseofnames. Porci's share the gold-on-red fleur-de-lys with Spanish Petro's, and the Petro Coat looks like a version of the Reed saltire, assuring that this was the line of Flavius Petro (first name, Titus). There is a Spanish Borgia Coat with another red bull, and the Petro Coat even has the Berk/Burgh cross so that John de Burgo de Conteville is linking to Sabina liners. Porcius Cato was a high-level Roman of the king-Massena period, and there is a Cato/Chattan surname, as well as a Chatan surname (tower), both sharing white-on-blue bends with Pulleys/Pullens. It can speak to Vespasian descent from this Cato character. "Porci" may even be a variation of "Eber," or the term that named Abruzzo. The father of all Hebrews was, Eber. Porcius Cato (no push-over) was a political foe of the Scipio's, and rose to fight against them with his statements.

Chatans are using more white towers, suspect with Pellicans if the Chatan bend is the Pulley bend (both have three red symbols upon their bends). Another surname using pelicans is the Godfreys. As the latter has a Negro in Crest, the surname is likely from Godfrey III, for Bouillons use a Moor head. Godfreys are apparently a branch of Jeffreys/Jeffers (it's that black-on-white and Welsh lion again), and Jeffreys are a branch of Jeffersons, suggesting that Jeffersons (share griffins with Irish Godfreys) were Godfreys to begin with. It's notable that Gophers/Gofers are almost using the Jefferson saltire.

Recall the grappling IRONs of Presleys, for the Petro cross is also that of Irons (why do they come up as Hirams?), said to be associated with "AIRAINes," in Picardy. As Sabina-based Palins = Vespasian liners are said to be from Picardy along with Roet ancestry, Rieti liners are all over the Iron/Hiram picture. As MacAbbe's/Abee's were first found on Arran (Scotland), while there is an ABEEville in Picardy, I trace ARRAN to "Airaines." Moreover, Airaines can be gleaned as a Raines' / Wren liner, namers of Renfrew, because Raines' share the Newman lions while JJ Tolkien (Lord-of-the-Rings / Hobbit author) gave "Numenor" as code for Newmans on Arran. That is, before learning of Abbe's and Newmans, and the latter's motto in honor of the Abbe's, I had identified Tolkien's island of Numenor as Arran (he said it was beside "Avallone" while I had already identified mythical Avalon as Bute, beside Arran). NEWMans may have been a NUMidian line. In freaky Freemasonic rituals, a Hiram Abiff is central. Why?

So, MacAbee's (griffin) look linked to the namers of Renfrew, and I link purple-lion Wrens/Raines' to purple-lion Skiptons = Massena-Scipio liners in Yorkshire i.e. a city stacked with Eburo peoples linking back to Cato. As Irons can link squarely to MacAbee's in this way, is the GRAPPling iron part-code for the AGRIPP's in the GRIFFin of the MacAbee Crest? The MacAbee salmon are code for Salmons expected as a branch of Salemans and Sale's/Salletts, the latter known by me to be Salto-river liners. I'm not convinced that MacAbee's are named after a cap, as the write-up claims in a factual manner (I've seen too many erroneous write-ups as factually stated). The MacAbee Coat is a good reflection of the Peace/Paise Coat, and the Pollock sept of Peacock lists a Peas surname that can be of the "piece of wood" held by the Rita lion.

Why were the Presley symbols called grappling hooks as an alternative to grappling irons? The Hooks are said to have had a Tooke branch, and Tooks/Touque's (lots of griffins) list "Tolkien." We just saw the Irons tracing to JJ Tolkien's Numenor. As the Hook write-up mentions HERVicus Hoc, the Hook Coat must be a version of the Hervey/Harvey Coat, which I identify as a version of the Bellamy Coat (and trace to the Arve river into lake Geneva). That's because the Garveys share the double chevrons of Perche's. The Harvey Crest happens to be a black boar, the Porcia symbol. As lake Geneva is in Switzerland, note the Swiss Hocks below.

While the Hooks share footless martlets with Josephs, the Hocks (symbol between antlers) share the swan with the same Josephs. Houseofnames changed the swan to the martlet, retaining the same colors (note that both are birds, as are roosters). The swan and martlet are in the colors of the Jonathan roosters, and no sooner had I made a link of the Jonathan-rooster design to a certain surname, houseofnames changed the design. I liked that, in a way, because it gave opportunity to find the kin of the second design, and it turned out that the new Jonathan design was used by Blue's/Gorms, first found in Arran. As Josephus traced himself to a priesthood from Jonathan Maccabee, by what coincidence did the Abbeville line in Arran come to use a Macabee variation???

The Gorm variation of Blue's is probably a Worm line (Worms share the green dragon with FORMans), possibly from the mythical-Gorm Danes. The Worms use a blue bend in both colors of the Charo/Claro bend. The Rollo Normans were Danes and were Claro's in some way, though very few historians / writers stick to this Claro view, as though there is an unspoken rule not to advance it.

I was surprised to find absolute logic in tracing the heraldic rooster to Gaia or Gala, two names of king Massena's father. Gays use the giant rooster, you see, and a chicken is a GALina to Italians. Gallura of Sardinia use the rooster, which was adopted by the Sardinian Visconti's. Avezzano's were first found on Sardinia. BriquesSART might apply to Sardinians. When certain Visconti's of Milan lost an estate / title(s), it passed over to Sforza's, suspect with the Pierleoni lion, and because it's the Ferrara lion, a Ferrari merger with Pierleoni is expected. French Force's use three leopards in Sforza-lion colors, in the passant positions of the two gold leopards in the Arms of Normandy, while the seven mascles (= hollow lozenges) of Sforza-beloved Quince's are in the colors of the nine mascles of the Rouens (from Dol), likely from the Norman capital, Rouen. These lozenges are in Abreu colors. It can appear that the line of Quintus Caepio was to Evreux and Rouen as a merger with Masculine's/Meschins, and merging with Ferrari's through Pierleoni Rome. It recalls that Normans were Claro's while Charo's/Claro's were first found in Ferrara. I claim that Vere's are Ferrari liners, and so see the Fear/Fere branch of Vere's using a reflection of the Charo/Claro Coat.

I had read and reported that proto-Ferrara, from as early as 70 AD, was called Forum Allieni, what I considered to be of the proto-Alans, and here we find Rouens said to be from Dol. As Abreu's share the white tower with Pellicans, first found in Maine, note that one branch of Quince's is said to have been from Maine. Another Quince branch is said to be from the Senard river through Oise (Paris), beside Ile-de-France, where Chappes' were first found that I see using a version of the tall, Ottone perchevron. The first Visconti of Milan was Ottone. The Senard-river Quince line may have named the Seneca's/Seneschals, (in Sant/Saint and Senn/Sens colors) for they have nine gold mascles too. Seneschals are said to be from a line of men named, Hamon, out of Lisieux (makes the Talbots of that place suspect). As Seneschals are said to have been in CREVEcouer, and descended from Hamon-aux-Dents, it's notable that Dents were first found in the same place, Yorkshire, as CRAVens, and that the land of Craven in Yorkshire was home to the Meschin-Scipio merger. Sants/Saints (suspect with "pasSANT") were first found in Yorkshire, and use cherubs, a garb-like term, while the three cherubs are in the positions of the same-colored, three garbs of Avisons and Comyns i.e. seen in the Chief of Charo-loving Josephs. There are three Seneschal surnames, in case you're interested.

The "macula" motto term of Seneschals gives the impression that the term should link to the owners of mascles. The "sine" motto term of Seneschals gets the Sion/Swan/Sine Coat that once showed gauntet gloves, the Macey symbol too. The Senns/Sens' were first found in Switzerland, location of Sion, and the Senn/Sens eagle has been suspect with the same of SPINKs, who share mascles with Quince's and were first found in the same place. The SPINGs/Spine's are said to be from Epineville in Yvetot, which happens to be along the Seine river, as was a branch of Quince's. I have read that Saer-de-Quincy's mother was from nearby Picardy. Yvetot is in the arrondissment of Rouen, and is the capital of Caux, while Seneschals show a SenesCAUX variation. Caps'/Keppers/Cappers were from Caux.

The Arms of Yvetot use "shuttles" (not called weaver's shuttles but that's what they are), as well as two gold garbs called "SHEAVES of wheat" (Wheats/Wetts use garbs and "ears of wheat"). Weavers shuttles are used by Keeps, in case you've forgotten (there is a Shuttleworth surname using weaver's shuttles). The Spings/Spine's are said to have moved from Yvetot to Feltwell in Norfolk, and Feltwells happen to use the two Levi lions in pale. Feltwells are said to be from Eure, location of Evreux and its Abreu line to the Eburovices of Yorkshire, though I had read that Yorkshire was co-founded by the Parisii of Paris (on the Seine river).

Feltwell recalls that German Feldmans (Jewish surname) use a version of the German Kaplan/Kappelan Coat (= Capelli-of-Ferrara liners). The Hampshire Kaplans show a KEPlaine variation. Watch how we get back to Dents with Feltmans, for they are said to be from HOUNSlow borough (West London), and as the Feltman Coat uses white-on-black, ermined bars, so does the Hound Coat that happened to list "Houns," and then the latter use the same lozenges as Dents. I now know that Hounds are the namers of Hounslow in London (whether I'll remember it is a different matter), which is near HUNtingdonshire (called Huntantun by Saxons). Fields/Felds (garbs) bring us to Hound/Houns colors. The Fields/FELDs share a white-on-black chevron with the Spikers/Spingle's of FELTwell.

Hounds/Houns' were rulers of Cambridge, where Capone's were first found, and London is where Capes' were first found, as well as Spikers/SPINGle's. Capes' share the scallops of Happs/Abbs (= Habsburg liners) who in-turn use lozenges in colors reversed from the Houns / Dent lozenges. The same ermined lozenges (same colors) are used by Patents/Pattens ("culpa" motto term buries, see Culps below) while Feltmans use a "Portanti" motto term that might apply to potent liners. The GAUNTleted arm in the Feltman Crest suggests that Feltmans are using a version of the Ghent Coat (same place as Josephs) and Side/Sudy Chief (Seaton / Suty branch); the latter share a white tiger with the Dent Crest, and may be using the Jewish-Levi lion in French-Levi colors.

The Josephs of Hampshire and Maine both link to the Henry martlets, in the colors of the Hips and Burd martlets, and while Hips' use a SPHINX that can be code for Spinks and Spings/Spine's, there is a Dutch Felt surname using just a large flory cross in the red-on-white of the same cross of Burds (Abruzzo variation?). For what it might be worth, a giant white-on-blue boar head (Molle / Schien symbol) is used by Spoons, first found in the same place as Spine's.

German Brix's can be using the Feltman star. The other half of the Feltman Shield can be using the Annas star. The Jewish Feltmans use a black moline in the two colors of the same of Chives', but the German branch substitutes with a patee. I can glean that Feltmans (leopard faces) were linked to Palmers, first found in Norfolk (Palms in Yorkshire), and while Palmers are using a version of the Fleck Coat, note that the latter were first found in Norfolk (i.e. where the Spings/Spine's ended up). As Fleck-suspect Fulke's were likewise first found in Norfolk, note that they use a spear in Crest, for the Feltmans use a broken spear as part-code for Broke's/Brocks, a branch of sphinx- and potent-using Brocuffs. The Brocks, said to include Arthur de CAPELL Broke, are said to have had a branch in Northampton, where Spinks were first found, which round-about makes a potential Spiker/Spingle link to Capelli liners in Ferrara, the theme of my Syphax prediction. The Brocks (Skit / Skeets kin) are said to be from Broc of Anjou, where Fulks had ruled.

Marc (lives in Holland), who wrote in to mention that the Taylards were related to Chapels, would be interested in Capells, said to descend to and from Dutch Keppels. The Capells share a gold fitchee cross with Quints, and, by the way, Brocks/Broke's are said to have had roots in Essex, where Quints were first found. As Quints are a Quince branch, let's re-mention that Quince's were first found in Northamptonshire, the area of Arthur de Capell Broke. The Quince-related Winchesters (share mascles with Spinks), who share the gold fitchee, were first found in the same place (neighboring Hampshire) as CAPLans. It all adds up to Quintus Caepio. As I trace him to the Cavii, note the "caveo" motto term of Oakleys.

[Marc found the Arms of the Dutch Keppels as three white scallops on red, the Capes' / Apps/Abbs symbol.]

I've just found the Spinglers/Spindle's, and they happen to show horns in Crest that could be borrowed from Bidens/Buttons, the ones that have the Capelli chapeau between the horns (the Huntingdon horns are in Horn/Orne colors). The Biden fesse bars in the colors of the Oakley fesse while the Capell-related Broke's/Brocks are said to have had their seat at Oakley Hall. Capple's, looked up only as per the Keppels above, are listed with Cabels, and use a red fesse, the color of the Biden / Oakley fesse. Chapman's/CHEPmans were first found in or near Huntingdonshire, while Oakleys use the same crescents as Chapmans ("BROKEn lance with a wreath on the point, all proper"). Moreover, the Chapman crescent is fashioned to look like horns. Chapmans are said to have been in Cambridgeshire before the Norman invasion (1066). Broke's and Chapman's both use "scit" buried in their mottoes, and a third surname with the same term buried is the Vallets (looked up as per seeking Felt branches).

As the Spinglers were looked up only as per the Spingle variation of Syphax-suspect SPIKErs, and as I entertain Spike's/Spicks/Specks/SPOCKs as a Syphax line, by what coincidence do Spinglers use "a six-SPOKE, gold wheel"? Spoke's are listed with Spike's/Spicks/Specks/Spocks, the write-up of which mentions FityzRoy of OAKhampton. It bears keeping in mind that my Syphax theory goes to Kepke's and Keeps, and here we are at Keppels. Moreover, the Syphax theory has his line at Rome linked to PORCius Cato, and here we find a PORCupine in the Spoke/Spick Crest. The Ceva are is an excellent candidate for residences or womanizing of Hannibal's fighters and leaders.

The Oakley fesse has fleur-de-lys in the colors of the PORCi fleur, and while I recognize this fesse with fleur as the red one once shown for Bush's, the Bush Coat shares the black boar with Porcia's. As I trace Bush's / Buschs to Busca, beside Saluzzo, note that Brocks and Brocuffs both use the Chief-and-Shield color combination in colors reversed to the same of Saluzzo's. Alans use another red fesse, and FitzAlans married Alice of Saluzzo while the Stewarts share the Brock motto. Alice was a daughter of Luisa of CEVA, a term very connectable to the "caveo" of Oakleys (because they share a red fesse with Alans). Caves' share a fretty Shield with Capple's and Spikers/Spingle's. Ceva is on/off a Cevetta river, and Cavetts happen to share multiple blue-on-white fesse bars with Spicks/Spoke's. Cavetts were first found in PICardy, and are in Picard colors. Hmm, I've never seen before that PICARdy may have been named by the Picker(nell) variation of Spingle's.

I had read that Meschins ruled COPEland. I had established as my own fact that Cravens were "KRVati," an alternative name of Croatians, and Croatia includes the Kupa/Colapis river that I trace to Colps/Cope's/Cups. Moreover, Copelands are suspect with a Washington Coat, and proto-Washington Wassa's/Gace's were at Gace at the Lisieux theater. The Arms of Copeland use a blue lion that I regard as the Caepio lion, seen in the Crest of Winchester, for example, the place ruled by Saer de Quincy. This makes the Copeland link to the Lisieux area linkable to the Quince line of that place, especially as that line links to Dents, apparently, who were first found in the same area as other blue-lion users such as Bruce and Hallands.

As MacAbee's are also Cabe's, it's notable that they are in the colors of the Cabel fretty (compare with Caen Coat for a trace to Cetis elements), and that Cabels were first found in Somerset, beside the Capelli-related Kaplans. As Capelli's use a chapeau cap, the cap theme in the MacAbee/Cabe write-up is thereby explained, though it doesn't mean that Abee's/Cabe's were named after a cap, but, rather, the cap became a symbol of a cap-like surname. That's how she usually works. We now have MacAbee's and Abbeville of Picardy pegged as Caiaphas suspects.

This is a good place to mention that Leo's use the Payne/Paine fesse, apparently, while the first-known Roet, Catherine's father, was Payne Roet of Picardy. Just trace Roets to Rita's that use a lion in Leo-lion colors. Catherine's personal symbol was the Catherine wheel, and the six-spoke wheel of Spinglers might apply to it. In this case, the wheel is probably a play of "roet," not on a Wheel surname.

The "impaVIDE" motto term of Cabels is suspect with the Avitus > Vito bloodline, and as Vito's show a BITINi variation, it's very revealing that the Capelli chapeau is shared by Buttons/BIDENs, first found in the same place as Caplans and Josephs. It looks like JOSEPH Biden, the American vice-president, is a Caiaphas liner. Obama is in several ways a Massey liner (through his Dunham mother).

Good news for the Syphax / Barca theories. The Spindle/Spindler variations of Spikers caused a search for potential branches, and found one with Spenders, listed with Spencers (wasn't Lady Diana a Spencer?). The SpikersSpiker/Spindle Coat, though it shows fretty, is said to use a fret, which is not only in the Spender/Spencer Coat, but the latter Shield as a whole is a replica of the BERKshire Coat! This is an excellent paragraph able to verify that I'm not wasting my time and yours on the Syphax=Spice=Spiker and Barca=Berk theories. Note that the Berkshire bend is blue and thinner than most, because the Claro's/Charo's and Spikers use thin, blue bends. The Spenders/Spencers look like they are using the Sale bend with the Meschin scallops, and the white Masci wings in Crest. Frets and fretty are thought (by me) to be a symbol of Ferte-Mace Massey/Macey liners. The Spiker description: "Red shield with a silver fret, a gold chief with a red leopard, OVERall a blue bend..." Overs (Cheshire) use a fret on a blue bend in both colors of the Charo bend.

Reminder: Charo's are in the motto of Josephs along with "mago," and Mago was Hannibals' brother, and Barca's son. Note that the mascles within the frets above are in the colors of the Quince / Rouen mascles, for Spinks use mascles too (suggests a Syphax-Numidian merger with the Massena-line Numidians). The white griffin head in the Spencer Crest is shared by Poole's i.e. from Poole of Hampshire, and I know this griffin head to trace to Dobrawa, wife of Mieszko I of Poland (see griffin heads of Dobers and Dobermans).

The Spencer / Berkshire Coat is shared by Duttons, from Dutton of Cheshire, and the three Coats use quadrants in the colors of the same of Tattons-of-Massey (Cheshire), suggesting that Duttons and Tattons were branches.

Spangle's just came to mind, and they're listed with SPENGle's. As the red-and-white stripes on America's star-spangled banner (WHITE stars) is thought to be from Washingtons, whom are said to derive in Wassa's, note that the Spangle Coat is a large VASE in the colors of the WHITE WASSA star. Vase's are listed with the Fessys whom come up as "Face," and thus suspect with leopard faces (if heraldic animal heads don't have necks, they are officially faces). Recall the Hock trace to Ligurian-swan liners, as per the "Hoc" motto term of Lohans/Logens, for Vase's/Fessys use "hoc" too, and they are suspect from the Fieschi family of Liguria (Genoa, if I recall correctly).

The Spiker leopard is in the position of, and colors reversed from, the Arms-of-Normandy leopard. If it was originally the Abreu lion, why was it changed to a LEOpard? The Arms of England, a take from the Arms of Normandy, use lions. Are leopards a special symbol of the Leo's behind the Pierleoni? German Leo's show a PRYZEWski variation to indicate their PIERleoni line, and the Leo lion may be the Talbot / Ranulph-le-Meschin lion because the Leo quadrants reflect the German Tall/Thal Coat (same Zionist stars on bends). As Talbots were close to Massey liners, the latter owning the sinister-rising bend, note that German Leo's use the sinister bend with the same Zionist stars as Massena's upon their sinister bend. This is a good place to re-mention that the Massena patees are in the colors of the same of Berkeleys/Barkleys for a potential trace to Barca. The other Berkeleys use the colors and format of Mackays, and the latter use the stag that has been found in a few Hannibal-like surnames, including the Hannibal surname. Tailbois' use the Chief-and-saltire combination of Annans.

The question is: were Pierleoni merged with Meschin / Talbot liners after they formed that name, or were Pierleoni Talbot / Meschin liners to begin with? Of all the possible Coats to use, why are Leo's showing the Talbot-Meschin symbols? Was this Pierleoni their ancestry? Let's not forget that Talls linked to Basina, wife of Childeric, and that Masci's use fleur-de-lys, a symbol that many trace to Childeric's son, king Clovis. There is a Clovis surname (listed with Clovells), first found in BERKshire, and then there is a Close/Clovse surname that I trace to Dumfries, where Annandale is located. I am not familiar with the Clovis surname, and found it accidentally just now by typing the name when meaning to type "Close" with "Clovse" on my mind. It was surprising to find Clovis'/Clovells first found in Berkshire. By what coincidence do Close's/Clovse's (Macey Shield?) show another lion, in green, the color of the Kilpatrick lion? Close's/Clovse's show the same hunting horns as the Arms of Traby (i.e. suspect with Massena / Numidian / Hannibal liners on the Trebia), in black, like the Patch hunting horns, a surname like the Patchie variation of Kilpatricks?

The Traby Crest has five ostrich feathers, and the Clovis/Clovell Crest is an ostrich. The Talls show feathers in their Crest too. Here's the tall description: "...two blue [feathers] on the dexter and two red on the sinister." The Dexter Crest is called "weights," and Weights use the same hunting horns as Close's/Clovse's. Dexters/Decksters are possibly a branch of Daggers, whom I say are from the Dexaroi peoples honored by the dagger of Kilpatricks/Patchie's, and while Patch's have black hunting horns too, not to re-mention the Levi lion, they had their castle at CLOSEburn, on the Nith river, home of the Geds in the time of king Clovis (I have a Geddes article speaking of the Geds on the Nith as early as 400 AD).

Clovis'/Clovells use two fat chevrons in black, and Levi's once showed three fat, black chevrons. Clovis moved the Frank capital to Paris, where French Levi's were first found. Jewish Levi's use lions as possible Pierleoni symbols. There is a nail in the mouth of the Clovis ostrich, and five "charGED" nails per Clovis chevron. I was unable to find what "charged" is code for, a term used often in heraldry, and so I had decided that it was double code, one for Char(d)s and one for Geds (Getuli Numidians?). Chards use a "NIL" motto term and what looks like a version of the Close/Clovse chevron with hunting horns. There is a Nail surname listed with German Nagle's/NEILs. Irish Neils show lions combatant in the colors of the Leo lion, as well as one fish in the colors of the Ged fish.

As I trace the Boofima human-sacrifice cult from the Imperi peoples of Africa to Imperia, otherwise called Oneglia, like "Nagle," it may be that Spike / Spiker Numidians found opportunity to form a Nail branch out of Oneglia. Before I emphasized Hannibal / Numidian liners, I had traced mythical Lohengrin (son of Percival), the Swan Knight, to an alliance of Carthaginians in swan-depicted Liguria (as per Cygnus, swan king of Liguria). I had realized that "Lohen" was code for swan-using Lochs/LOKENs/Logens and Locks. That led to the Scottish LOHANs/Logens using three nails. And that's how Nails/Nagle's can link to Spike liners. Nagle's share the blue fesse bar with Spike's as well as the Imperia-suspect Boeufs/Beefs (PERIgord). Note that the nails pierce a heart, a typical method for human sacrifice but using something like a fitchee cross instead of a spike/nail. As Majors/Magors are suspect with Mago Carthaginians, and as Carthaginians were one off the most sordid human-sacrifice cults, what about the "majorum" motto term of Lohans/Logens? Or, the "Hoc" motto term of Lohans/Logens is likely for swan-using Hocks (rhymes with "Lock"). Or, as Percivals were first found in the same place as Pierce's. here's the Lohan/Logen description: "...passion nails piercing a man's red heart." What's "passion" code for? Passons/Pastons/PAIStons are using the Child Coat.

Char(d) use PARTridges while they can be part code for the same as LeoPARDs. German Leopards/Lepards (Le Pards?) show a chevron in the red-on-blue of the Leo fesse (see also the Paine's). I can imagine a pard variation from Parts/Parots/Perrots (Peter lion?). Perrots are said to be from "Pierre," and Pierre's from "Peter." Can we therefore imagine a Perrot surname (uses pears) from PIERleoni, who were named in part after a Peter (and reportedly after pope Leo)? Why do Pears/Peare's/Pearls (first found beside Berkshire) use three leopard faces, as do Leopards? Both use them around a gold chevron. The Chard motto includes "desPERANdum," and Perans (fir cone's) happen to show more leopard faces, on a chevron in the colors of the Clovis/Clovell chevron.

We now have reason to believe that the Pierleoni descended from Basina (Clovis' mother), for in this way the Pierleoni can also be rooted in the proto-Meschin line of Julius Bassianus. The Peran fir cones are "proper," and then there's yet another ostrich in the Crest of Propers/Robins/Roberts (Gernon / Robert / Benedict lion?), not forgetting that Maschi's use pine cones, for Propers were first found in the same place as Masseys. The Proper ostrich has a crown around its neck (often called "gorged"), a symbol I've traced to the Ceraunii, living beside the Maezaei and on the URBANus river (Urbans show the Massena / Tall bend too). The Ceraunii were identified with mythical Coronis = the Mysian line to the Meshwesh of Cyrene, home also of the Bistones (erect-sword symbol) that trace to the Bistons and Bessins, both using bees of a design once showing for the bees of Talls (first found in the same place as Basina).

The Crauns (like "Ceraunii") use patee crosses half in the colors of the Massena patees, and a crown gorged around a hind's (= deer's) throat. Hinds use the same lozenges as Brix's/Brice's. Bricks, with a Bruce-like Bruik variation, use lozenges in colors reversed as well as what I gather are the Massey fleur in Chief, for Bricks are suspect with "Briquessart," father of Meschins. Crauns (like "crown") are listed with Crane's, and Crone's/Croons (Coronis suspects) show the same fleur-de-lys (Child colors and format), and a mural crown. The Crone crown is gold, the color of the mural crown (called a "mural CORONet") of Caens, and Caen is a location in/beside the Bessin. The Caens show more leopard faces, as well as five ostrich feathers in the white of the five Traby feathers...which is why I trace Caens to the Ceno river, beside the Trebia. Why do Caens use a PERimus motto term?

There was a Ceraunii mountain system in Epirus, a Hebrew-suspect place that I trace to "Aprutium," the old Abruzzo capital that likely named Abruzzo. The people of Epirus are called, Epirotes. Beside Abruzzo is the province of Molise, like the major Epirus tribe of Molossians. I do not think the Epirotes were Israelites in the least, but rather from a Khabur/Habur tributary of the Euphrates that named Aphrodite. She was paired in myth with Hephaestus, and he was likely a representation of the Amazons of Lemnos. Hence, a Hebrew-Meshech merger. Yes, for it's known that Apiru/Abiru lived at the Euphrates theater, and it's where God called Abraham in order to form the Israelite tribe of Hebrews. Lemnos is offshore from the mouth of the Hebros river.

One theory had been, for lack of any other suitable term that I know of in the Greek world, that "Levi" had become "Halybes," the metal-making peoples of Asia Minor. Hephaestus was given a metal-maker symbol. As he is said to be the Roman Vulcan, compare the term with "Balkan," for the Balkans are in what was Thrace, and downtown Thrace was on the Hebros. Hephaestus was a son of Hera, and she had a daughter, HEBE. Hebrews, right? Yes, and Hera was a tribe of Ares, whom Aphrodite loved instead of Hephaestus. Even Hera didn't like ugly Hephaestus.

The Umbria Theory

Now that there is good evidence of a Syphax trace to Spiker variations such as Spings, Spinks, Spangle's, etc, the heraldic sphinx can apply, which is used also by Openheims, a Germanic-Jew surname. Openheims are suspect in the open helmets of Mynetts, first found in Kent, where I expect Numidians of other sorts besides the Masons/Massins...which I trace to Massino-Visconti, a location in Piedmont that was a Visconti entity, obviously. The idea in the open helmets may be to indicate that German Helms/Helmers (helmet) were Heims/Heimers. Homers/Holmers are said to be named after makers of helmets, but this is more likely confusing disinformation where they, in reality, had marital links to helmet-using surnames. Holmers could simply be a branch of Helms. The Homer/Holmer Crest is a lion paw holding a gold patee, and then the Quints have a lion paw holding a gold fitchee.

Homers/Holmers share the red rooster with Cocks/Cockers, whom I have linked to the Ligurian Grimaldi's, and to names from mythical CYCnus/CYGnus, the Ligurian swan king (suspect with Savona). "Cock" rhymes with the swan-using Hocks. Cygnus's father, STHENElus, was traced to the Sithone-suspect namers of SITTEN, otherwise called, Sion, and likely of the swan-using Sion/Swan surname. Tacitus said that Sitones lived beside the Sviones in Scandinavia, which looks exactly like the Sthenelus swan liners out of Svione-like Savona. Dutch Cocks use a giant rooster in the colors of the Home/Hume lion. The latter are Herod-Archelaus liners (or at least married to them) out of Lyon. I see in these roosters a Gaia-Numidian trace to Ligurians. Heim(er)s, by the way, were first found in Switzerland, and as they use red foxes, as do Jewish Fox's while Irish Fox's are said to be from "SIONnach," it seems to speak for itself that Heim liners were out of Sion.

The Homer/Holmer variation of "Heyme" [no longer showing days after I wrote this] can indicate a branch of Heyne's, and that gets us to Hanna- / Hain-type surnames while Hayme's/Heyme's use the giant Annas star in gold. Irish Heyne's/Haine's use lions combatant in the colors of the same of Abreu's, as well as an erect sword (almost) speaking of Bistones. It could be the lion of Capells, speaking to Caiaphas versus his father-in-law, Annas/Ananus. One of the Heyne/Haine lions is red, however, as is that of German Hayne's/Hains, and it now starts to look like the Talbot-and-Grey line. Greys love the Anchors, and one Openheim Coat uses an anchor. Cock(er)s, Hannitys (GREYhound, leopard faces), and Hains were first found in the same place as Ivo Taillebois. The Irish Fox's use the same lion as Talbots along with roughly the erect sword of Heyne's/Haine's. Hummers/Humbers are said to be from a location held by Ivo Taillebois. Irish Hannitys/Heanys, I've just learned, use a colors-reversed version of the Heyne/Haine Coat, and they do use a perfectly-erect sword.

AND, to my surprise, the chapeau cap is found in the Holm Crest with a red lion's head, though it's called: "ensigned with cap of maintenance." In the Holm canton square, a "wreath" that could once have been a chaplet i.e. of the Capelli line owning the chapeau. The wreath is in the colors of the giant annulet of VITO's, and Holms use a "VIDE" motto term. This is excellent proof that "vide" is code for Vito's, for the Bitini variation is like the Biden variation of chapeau-using Buttons. Capple's/Cabels use "impaVIDE," you see. Now you're becoming heraldry-smart. You know enough to reject most derivations that you find in the hokey write-ups. I see the write-ups, often, as deliberate disinformation. Hummers/Humbers share multiple fesse bars with Holms so that the red Holm lion can be the Talbot lion.

English Holms use a red lion "LANGUEd blue," and the German Holms use a rock that can be for Roque's/Rocks / RoqueFEUIL, in LANGUEdoc. Note that French Rocks are said to be from Herault while Heraults are listed with Hurls/Herods, themselves in the colors of English Rocks (treFOIL), and in the colors of the Arms of Roquefeuil. The Hurls and Herls/Hurls speak to me of Herluin de Conteville, and therefore of Conte's and Ville's, both first found in Languedoc. This paragraph is clue that langued codes are for Languedoc liners. This is child's play, not much of a science at all. If it were difficult, I wouldn't be doing this now, going on more than ten years nearly full time.

German Hams use the giant annulet of Vito's, child's play, isn't it? The "Fide" motto term of Holms can be for Fiddle's, matching the Vitelli variation of Vito's. Fiddle's are from a FIDElow location (Normandy) using a wolf symbol. Fiddle's can be a branch of Fido's/Fiddes'/Fothes (see also Foots), who may be using a colors-reversed version of the Capone Coat, for they show a cornuCOPIA in Crest. Let's recall the line of Quadratus Bassus to Julius Bassianus, for while the Vito-suspect, Julius Avitus, married Bassianus' daughter, Quadratus traces to wolf-head Quade's (share wolf heads with Fiddle's), and the Holms are to topic only because of the helmets of Mynetts, a surname tracing to Amyntes, ancestor of Quadratus. Thus, the Bassus-Maccabee-Herod line goes to Hams and Hammers, which we could expect of Maccabee liners. That is, we might expect some Freemasonic dopes, knowing their Maccabee past, and having a surname similar to "hammer," to then create a Hammer surname for pride of their ancestors.

If you like games, get on board with this one. German Hams use "Three green shrubs with red flowers." English Hammers (Home/Hume colors) were from ROCHdale, a Rock liner associated with Rookbys and Rooks, and giving its Arms to, or taking them from, Chaddocks / Chadwicks. Hamsare in the same colors, and using the same salmon as MacAbee's.

As per my past trace of Humbers to Italy's Umbria, though not knowing then that they were also Hummers and thus linkable to Homers/Holmers, my knee-jerk reaction is to see Helm liners from Umbria, and this is where the Ottone's come in, first found in Umbria, for they share a curved and tall perchevron with Openheims. And the Ottone's throw in annulets while looking honored in the Vitone variation of annulet-using Vito's that just linked solidly to Holms. That's starting to make sense i.e. Helm / Holm liners may have evolved as Umbers > Humbers > Hummers > etc. If I'm correct in tracing Ottone's to Ottone Visconti, note that Hemmers/Hammers can be using the Sforza lion, for Visconti's gave their serpent to Sforza's. The "HONORes" motto term of Hemmers may suggest that Honors / Honers were Homer lines too. Reminder: Sardinian Visconti's are viewed with the Gaia-Numidian line that I say founded Maccabees proper after Gaia's son made an alliance with general Scipio.

There had been evidence that emperor Otto I had lines in cahoots with the Arduinici of Ivrea, and for this reason Ottone's/Otto's were entertained from Otto I. His father was Henry FOWLER, like the Flower surname, and Fowlers (Helm-helmet colors) happen to use a chevron in the colors of the Ottone chevron. Fowlers are traced to Ricardus FOGHler, and then Foggs (share annulets with Ottone's) were first found in SHREWsbury, which may have been named after the shrub-code line. Note the SHREVE's below that happen to share gold-on-blue lion with Fowlers. In my opinion, Fogg liners trace well with Palins to Phocaeans (co-founders of Ligurians). This paragraph is partly new to me and makes sense. FOGHertys use more gold-on-blue lions, making them suspect with Fowlers/Foghlers. A motto term, "vouloir," of gold-lion, Pierleoni-based Benedicts was thought to be code for a Fowler branch. It just so happens that Benedicts were first found in the same place as Shreve's. Reminder: if Dutch Benedicts/Bennett are using a book, they can trace with Roets to Rita's.

Of course, this is child's play once you're familiar with enough Coats, and if you can remember who has what. The rest is a guessing game, but you do much better if you know history and geography. Want to see more gold-on-blue lions? See the Bone's and Bonns expected to be part of the "De bon" motto phrase of Benedicts. Then, ask why Debons (Rita lion?) were first found in Milan, home of Ottone Visconti. Oh what fun.

Here's from the 4th update of March, 2015, when roughly I first tackled the vouloir motto term:

It was good timing that I took a new stab at the Benedict motto term, "VOULOIR"...My first stab in the last update was like so: "Another Benedict motto term strikes me as code for the Brittany Voirs/Voyers (suspect with Boyer liners), for German Benedicts use so-called "boilers in the middle" (Middle's/Mittels are suspect with "Metellus"), while Voirs/Voyers use the gold lion of Benedicts." As Middle's had been traced months ago to Mytilene on Lesbos, while Lesbos elements had been found linked to on-shore Foca (ancient Phocaea), just watch this, starting with the VOULERs/Fowlers/Foulers...who nearly have the Voir lions.

Modern Foca was ancient Phocaea, home of Phocaeans. It looks like Pierleoni were merged with the imperial line of Otto I, which also merged with Visconti's of Milan, and that Henry Fowler was not named after bird-hunting, as claimed, but after Foca elements. Milan was called, MEDiolanum, and Lesbos had a city METHymna. I really do trace Leslie's to LESbos, and Irish Leslie's show another gold-on-blue lion, and while German Pucks look surely to be a merger with Ottone's, there are Puckle/Puckel variation of English Pucks that can be of the Leslie buckles.

Note that the Hemmer/Hammer Shield is split (acting as a bend) in the sinister-rising direction, same as Rasmussens, for the previous NATO chief was Anders FOGH Rasmussen. The Foggs share the unicorn with Rasmussens, no guff, and as Rasmussens are Dane's, the Cnut unicorn should apply. The Rollo Normans were stationed at/near Hamar of Norway.

Of interest, there are Hun-using variations with Honers, and then the "ad" motto term, shared by Hemmers, has been traced tentatively to Ada of Warenne/Varenne, whom married Henry of HUNtingdon. Honers/Hunwicks share the blue bend with both Leslie surnames, and with BUCKinghams, and Leslie's are known to be HUNgarians. Leslie's, Buckinghams and Honers all have three gold symbols on their blue bends. Plus, the Varenne's were at Sussex, where Honers/Hunwicks and Pucks/Puckle's were first found, tending to nail Pucks/Puckle's with the Buckle and Buckley surnames. Let's go back to the Ham salmon, in the colors of the MacAbee salmon, recalling that the Arran location of the latter was linked to the Airaines location of Irons/Hirams predicted to be in-honor in the GRAPPling irons of Presleys (more gold lions). The Grapps/Grape's/Grabbers list Gripps, and Leslie's use the motto, "Grip fast." Proto-Hungarians are traceable to the Ticino river, near Milan.

There are many "Per" motto terms that start off a motto, usually in honor of something to follow, that might be code for PIERleoni. The Hemmers use a "Per" motto term.

Hmm, Honers/Hunwicks share the CINQUEfoil (Quince code?) with HAMELtons (Renfrew) while Hemmers are also Hammels. Note that Hammels rhyme with Camels, for Labors use "bars-GEMEL" while the Hemmer/Hammel motto is, "Per labores ad honores." That throws a monkey wrench into a Hemmer trace to "Umbria," unless Umber liners merged with Camel liners that would inevitably form Hamel-like variation(s). Labors are in Dee colors, and Dee's (Aberdeenshire), using a labor motto term, look to be using the Shreve/Sheriff lion. Dee's and Hemmers share an upright (called, rampant) gold lion. Feasibly, Leslie's were on the Dee river of Aberdeenshire. The Turins/Thurins/Torns, first found in Aberdeenshire, trace to the Turano river, through Umbria, to a Terni location (Umbria). As the entire Homer / Hummer / Hammer discussion was off of helmet liners (assumes Helms to be Umbria liners), so we find a helmet in the Turin/Thorn Crest.

As German Pucks use a version of the Ottone Coat, might they have been a Pickernell variation listed with Syphax-suspect Spikers? After Hannibal defeated Scipio, his army moved south through Italy, as far as Apulia, and while I don't know Hannibal history much, he could certainly have made fortifying alliances in Umbria. In fact, the red Holm lion can be that of Buch's/Puchers because their motto shows "FIDELitate." The BUCH/Pucher lion is in the colors of the Fiddle wolf heads, and the BUCKingham lion is identical. Fidelow of the Fiddles was also, VIS-de-Loop, a potential VISconti hatch in Normandy. There is another red lion in the Capone Crest, and this surname is regarded (by me) as a branch of Chappes' who in-turn share a tall perchevron in the colors of the same of Ottone's. Reminder: Spice's are in Capone colors and format.

It never occurred to me before that it's tall as per Tall / Talbot liners, but then Talbots use the Buch / Buckingham lion. Welsh Bachs share blue vair fur with Sforza-related Quint liners, and Bachs use the talbot dog in Crest. It's black, like the Carrick talbot, and Sheriffs can be a branch of Shere's/Shire's that likewise use the black talbot. Talbots were first found in Shropshire, also called SHREWSbury, like those SHRUBS we came across that I suspect are code for some Shreve- / Shrove-like surname. Shreve's are listed with Sheriffs that share the gold-on-blue griffins of the Hampshire Caplans.

German Bachs use the steer while Steers (Styr's, they say), judging from their Somerset location, are Stur-river liners, speaking to the Hampshire Sturs, which can explain why the Steers share a "ne" motto term with the Hampshire Josephs. In the Steer Crest, a lion paw, symbol of the Quint Crest too. The vertically-split Steer Shield can thus be a version of the Kaplan Shield (because Josephs were Caplan kin). It therefore looks good for tracking Backs and Buchs/Puchers to Syphax liners that, as a theory, had morphed to such terms after Spike liners evolved into Picker-like terms. One could then entertain Spine- / Spina- / Espaines-like surnames as further branches. The Malaspina's of Massa-Carrara are coming to mind as a potential Massena-Numidian line in merger with Syphax liners.

The Nee/Knee/Neigh surname has another blue bend, in both colors of the Leslie bend, and while Hungarians liked the stag symbol, Nee's use one. Why should Josephs love Nee liners? Ask the blue bend of Charo's. While Reeds were first found in the same place as Leslie's, Nee's use two symbols of the Reeds. Knee's and related Knights were traced to the Suffolk-Norfolk border (Diss river, and around Eye), and Reeve's were first found in Suffolk. You can find the Reeve term in the Shreve/Sheriff write-up, though I don't agree that Sheriff's are derived in "Reeve" as the write-up puts it. Knee's/Neighs and Knights (Suffolk, BLOIS kin) were traced to the Cnut Danes, a descendant of mythical king Gorm, and then Gorm-suspect Worms use another BLUE bend ("gorm" means "blue" to some) and share a green dragon in Crest with the Reeve's Crest, in the color of the Leslie-Crest griffin. Grave's could be of the "Grip" motto term of Leslie's i.e. the GRIPP/Grapp/Grabber/Grabben surname implied, and linkable to "GRIFFin." The Worm bend and its dragon is in the colors of the Leslie bend and its buckles. The Reeve's are said to derive in "Gerefa," which looks like a line of Griffins. Shreve's/Sheriffs use griffins. The Graff(in)s? Another blue-on-gold lion holding an item (anchor). Dutch Graffs are using a nebuly border on their fesse, a symbol on the River fesses, indicating that Rivers, and therefore the related Revere's, were Reeve liners from Graffs / Grave's or something similar.

As I trace Berenice Agrippa to Bernice's and Burns, it just so happens that they were first found in CUMBERland, a part of UMBERland, suspect from Umbria, where I'm thinking to trace Homer / Hummer liners. I know for a fact that Home's/Hume's can link to Herod Archelaus. Umbers are listed with Hummers/Humbers, with a griffin head in Crest, no kidding. Griffins, Gripps, Reeve's and similar others were Agrippa liners, weren't they? Was Shrewsbury, therefore, named after Agrippa liners of the Shreve/Sheriff kind? Cumbers and COMBers can be a branch of COMPs, listed with griffin-using Camps (Yorkshire, beside Cumberland), in Campbell colors, and the latter show "Cammell," like the Hammel variation of Umbria-suspect Hemmers, the ones who can connect to the shrub-and-flower Hams. And the Flower surname shares the HAMELton cinquefoil, probably.

As I said that the Dober and Doberman griffins trace to DOBRawa, one wife of Mieszko I, so we find another griffin head in the Haldan Crest while he was married also to ODA of Haldensleben (Otto liner?), from Germany. I can't recall whether Mieszko II Lambert was his son with one of the two wives, but AMBERs are listed with Lamberts so that they may have been UMBER / Umbria liners. By what coincidence do Ambers/Lamberts use two chevrons in the colors of the Ottone and Fowler chevrons? It looks like a Macey-Coat variation, in view of "Mieszko".

Stur liners (i.e. suspect with Bach-beloved Steers) were fundamental with Poole's, and Poole's use the Rita lion that is itself a white version of the Sforza lion that could be in the Shreve/Sheriff Crest. With a Visconti link to Vito's, we can then take it, in more child's play, to the "piece of wood" held by the Rita lion. That's because the Woods have a Wide variation (note the VIDEri" motto term of Sheriffs). English Wide's (fleur in colors reversed from Sheriff fleur) are in Sheriff colors, and Scottish Wide's/Woods/Vode's (savage holding a wooden club) share the gold fitchee with Quints. The Rita lion is regarded as the Quince-loving Sforza lion, and a quince is a flower, reminding us of the Ham description: "Three green shrubs with red flowers." The Shreve/Sheriff Crest has a gold lion that should therefore be the gold Hemmer/Hammer lion (that itself holds an object, as does the Shreve/Sheriff lion).

Shrewsbury was also, Salop, suspect with the Sale's/Salletts of neighboring Cheshire, and I trace them to the Salto tributary of the Turano (the two rivers meet at Rieti). As we might therefore expect Rieti elements at Salop, what about the red, spread eagle, a Reed symbol, in the Coat of Ferte's that I see for Ferte-Mace? Again, Reeds share "copia" with Macclesfield in Cheshire, where Sale's were first found that were also Sales-of-Mascy. One can actually find a Mr. Masci of Huntingdon in the Macey write-up. And Meschins were first found in Salop. As Meschins were from the neighborhood of Caen, it's notable that Caens share five, white ostrich feathers with SCROPe's, a potential SHROPshire line. As Shrewsbury (in Shropshire) named Shropshire, apparently, it can appear that Scrope's trace to Shreve/Sheriff liners, first found in Warwickshire, which, if I'm not mistaken, is beside Shropshire. I've been tracing Warwick to Poland's Warsaw, capital of Masovia, where Mieszko's ruled as dukes. The dukes of Masovia used the wyvern of Mosca-loving Drake's (share axe in Crest with Warwicks), and the Arms of Warsaw share the Mason/Massin mermaid. Warwicks were first found in CUMBERland, it's true, and the Sheriff fesse is colors reversed from the same of the Cumberland Bernice's (hunting horns, traceable to the Caen / Orne theater). I don't think it's possible for Warwicks and Poole's to share the same lion unless they were related, for both are English families, and the English government protected heraldic symbols from piracy.

Recall the COMBers, for the Mason/Massin Crest is: "A mermaid with COMB and glass proper." They don't call it a mirror, in this case, and while Glass' use the same mermaid, Jewish Glass' share the white eagle wing with Masci's.

Tabers (Sheriff colors), which can trace to the Tiber river, which flows through Umbria to the home of the Pierleoni, use more gold-on-blue lions. As Sheriffs use such a lion along with Agrippa-suspect griffins, why does the woman in the German Taber Coat hold a bunch of GRAPE's?

The Griffin family is known to be from Pomerania, and related to Mieszko liners there. Here's from Wikipedia's article of Oda of Haldensleben: "[...this Dagome iudex]...indexes the lands of (Mieszko), referred to as 'Dagome' in the document, and his wife 'Ote' and her sons by him (Mieszko and Lambert are only named; probably SwitoPELK was already dead by that time or was in Pomerania as a ruler, according to modern historians)..." The article gives "Misaca" as Mieszko's alternative spelling. It turns out that Mieszko II Lambert was Oda's son, a good reason to trace Ambers/Lamberts to Ottone's of Umbria. The two, white chevrons of Lamberts are probably shared with Sweets, either from Swietoslawa, Mieszko I's daughter (mother of king Cnut), or from SwietoPELK. It's notable that the Pellican tower is in Piast-eagle colors, for Pellicans are expected as Poole / Pulley/Puller liners.

Clicking to the article on Swietopelk, it says that historians "linked the first Pomeranian Dukes with the Piast Dynasty through a daughter of either Siemomysl [mythical] or Mieszko I." SiemoMYSL, of the Mouse Tower, was code for mouse-using Misls.

Swietoslawa was alternatively called, Sigrid the HAUGHTy, which I trace to Haughts (Cheshire, as expected, shares bull with Mieske's/Mesechs), who share the bars of Hummers/Humbers, apparently, in colors reversed. The Haughts are said to have named Hauston in Shropshire, smacking of Houstons (hour GLASS) of Glasgow links. The mermaid of Warsaw can thus trace to the Glass Crest by way of a Hauston > Houston migration to Renfrew. If this is correct, the Houstons are not likely from Hugh Lupus.

The Micks/Miseks/Miska's, who look like Mieske liners, share three white fesse bars with Haughts, and the write-up mentions Mikusche SCHOPPE, like the Scope variation of Shropshire-suspect Scrope's. Traby is a location in Poland, and it's the Arms of Traby that share five, white ostrich feathers with the Scrope/Scope Crest. We've nailed it. The Puck-etc liners above could include the Beaks/Beeks/Beakleys (ostrich) that should be using the Hummer/Humber bars, and these have been traced to the three bars, in the same colors, of the Arms of TREBizond empire.

The Haughts are said to have named both Haughton and Hooten of Cheshire, and Wootens happen to share the black-on-white saltire of Haldans. Now this gets very interesting because Wootens are also WODEtons, and that recalls the piece of WOOD of Rita's, who share the same lion as Warsaw-suspect Warwicks! The write-up speaks of Wooten Wawen in Warwickshire in the 700s, 200 years before Mieszko I. It could suggest that Mieszko's ancestry was a Masci liner amongst the Saxons in the 700s. Recall the Woods/Wide's with a savage in Crest, for Savage's were first found in Cheshire. Recall king Maccus, of the 900s, having a sit-down with Saxons of Cheshire, for Wootens use the same saltire as MACCUSwells/Maxwells, the mother trunk to Pollocks. Maccus was a Dane, but Danes shared parts of England with Saxons, on and off, so that the Wooten locations might actually have been Danish, of Maccus' ancestry. It can explain why Sigrid the Haughty married a Dane king (Forkbeard).

There was a Wooton Basset in England even before Wooten Wawen, and Bassets (Bassianus liners?) share three wavy fesse bars (code for Cheshire Weavers) with Beaks/Beakleys, now making Beakleys suspect as a branch of the Cheshire Buckleys/BULLkellys (in the colors of bull-using Haughts).

If you read the Hooten write-up, click over to the Vernons (use the Cheshire garbs on the colors and format of Weirs/Vere's and Nagle's), and see the Hugh-Lupus connection to Ferrers, who share horseshoes (an extensive Polish symbol) with Ferrari's. Again, Ferrara was linked close to Este; Este was the root of Welfs, and Welfs were first found in Cheshire so as to engulf Hugh Lupus, apparently. The Ferrers use their six horseshoes in the pattern, and colors reversed from, the Savage lions. I almost lost hope of finding surnames from Spoleto, in Umbria. I was convinced that such a surname should exist, and I had seen the "SPOLia" motto term of Feltmans. I then realized that Spoleto may have been named after an English term like Spolton, and there was a Spolton surname (listed with Spauldings) using buckles on a six-sectioned Shield, like that of Wheelwrights, important here because Mieszko is descended from a mythical Piast Kolodziej the Wheelwright. The Wheelwrights share the Catherine wheel with COLTers, suspect with KOLODziej. I'm now starting to understand that Mieszko's came from the land of Saxons, for I even traced the Gewisse area of Saxons to the Kwisa river of Lusatia, where Micks/Miske's were first found, and where the Speers, beloved by Masons/Massins, traced too (Spree river of Lusatia). The Tate's (six-sectioned Shield) and Tattons (same crescents as Speers and Sprees) play into this picture, probably related to Tutbury of the Ferrers.

And I've just realized that Fullers, suspect with Fulbert "the Saxon," father of Pollocks, can be using the three Mick/Miske bars in colors reversed! The Fuller horse can even go to the Hooten Crest. But I'm stumped on the gold stars upon the green bend of Hootens.

The Spoltons are said to descend from RANDOLPH Mechin, earl of Cheshire (that's Ranulph le Meschin). I have never seen his name as Randolph, but it supports my trace to le-Meschin to Thomas Randolph, first earl of Moray. Morays use the Warsaw mermaid too, and the Ambers/Lamberts use the same stars as Morays, which are shared in different colors (gold on red), according to the Sutherland write-up, by Sutherlands. Mackays of Sutherland, whom I've insisted over the years to be a Mieszko branch, were at Morayshire.

Did you notice that the Spolton buckles face sinister, yet more evidence that Masci liners own the sinister symbol. Ferrers share the unicorn with Fire's/Feuerers and sinister Rasmussens (same unicorn as Feuerers, in Piast colors). Note that the Rasmussen bend with fleur-de-lys are either in Massey-fleur colors (the Assman branch), or are the fleur-on-bend of Pepins (kin of Webers = Weavers = wavy bars), for both surnames use the horse, and moreover I traced mythical Popiel to Pepinids. Popiel was the first ruler of the mythical mouse tower, where he was subdued by Piast the Wheelwright. Piast is now suspect as something of the Saxons or Danes in England, and the Rieti-line Roets are the prime suspects. German Roets share the sleeping moon of Karens, first found in Silesia, which overlaps Lusatia.

Note MICKIE MOUSE, for Micks/Miske's are from the mouse tower, right? There was also a Maisy Mouse cartoon character. Mickie's (Aberdeenshire, same as other Umbrian suspects) share the erect sword in arm with Spoltons/Spauldings, and the latter use it short, evocative of the Mackay dagger. The Mickie Coat looks to be using the double-headed eagle of Spike's/Spoke's/Specks, which recalls the SIX spokes on the Spingler wheel. Do Mickie's use the Ranulph-le-Meschin lion? Mickie's call it, "A RIGHT hand holding a dagger upRIGHT," and Rights are listed with Wrights, not likely coincidental. Rights were Roets and Rita's, weren't they? An arm with sword is also in the Mieske Coat. The Dagome version of Mieszko I may have been of a Dagger bloodline. Daggers look linkable to Sabine's.

Mickie's are said to be a branch of MacDonalds, and while the MacDonalds normally show the Ferte eagle (red), the Mickie's show a red double-headed eagle, same as Spike's. Amazingly, while my senses have been making a KEPKE link to "Syphax," the Mickie's are said to be from MacDonalds of KEPPOCH. As Mickie's show the Kane / Cain fish, they are likely a branch of Macie's (show the MacDonald symbols again, including the Ferte eagle). Macie variations include MacKane, and this led the writers to assume that Macie's were from "John," somehow, though I say they were Ferte-Mace liners merged with Kane / Keen / Keon liners. Note that Macie's show a buckle (!) for linkage to Spoltons/Spauldings. The Buckle motto honors the DeMere's and Mere's, in my opinion, both first found in Cheshire, and both sharing the ship with MacDonalds. The latter even use a "Per mare" motto phrase. I say that MacDonalds, pirates between Ireland and Scotland, were in cahoots with the Maccus bloodline of the same islands, and that this was Mieszko ancestry from Wooten elements all linking to the piece of wood of Roet-related Rita's.

The Wright/Right write-up speaks on two Mr. WRIETI's, like "Rieti" (about 25 miles from the Umbrian border), of Cambridgeshire. Note the color of the Right/Wright leopard faces, in the colors of the Rita and Warwick lion, and very indicative of the Pierleoni, but also pointing out the Face's/Fessys that share the MACCLESfield cross.

I ALMOST FORGOT. MacDonalds are from Dal RIATA!!!! Pirates from Rieti into Ireland and Scotland? What is that? Why is Dal Riata in the Hebrides? Was that an Abruzzo / Eburovices territory? Don't Bruce's of Yorkshire (founded by Eburovices) use the Rita lion in colors reversed? Ireland was founded much by a mythical Heber.

I've just felt compelled to find other surnames, besides the Spoltons/Spauldings, that use a "mihi" motto term, and came to another surname using the Rita lion, that being the Keaveneys/Gaineys, perhaps Kiev liners linking to Keeps / Kepke's. The so-called "Enfield griffin" in the Keaveney Crest is proof that Kellys use one (I know that Hitlers/Hiedlers do), for the Keaveney Coat is a replica of the Kelly Coat. As Spoltons use buckle's, its notable that the Buckley branch of Buckle's show a BullKELLY variation. Between the Rita-suspect lions, Keaveneys and Kellys use a white tower, suspect with the Mouse Tower, and perhaps the same-colored tower of Cato-related Chatans. I once insisted that proto-Kellys were the root of Cilnius Maecenas, of a CILnius family in Arretium just outside the Umbria border. He married the Murena's, and Murena's share the tower with Kellys.

Another surname using "mihi" is the Swale's (Keaveney colors), a possible SPAULding variation. No kidding, the Swale write-up traces to Gilbert of Gaunt, a relative of John of Gaunt, husband of Catherine Roet. It can therefore be gleaned that Swale's are using the fesse of Dutch Ghents, which may suggest that the Gaine variations of Keaveneys are from Ghent/Gaunt liners. Swale's are said to have named Swale of Yorkshire, and then Keppochs were first found in Yorkshire too.

Their village was KipPAX, and may be the reason for the Reed motto, "PAX copia," for Reeds share garbs with Keppochs. In other words, the copia liners were Keppochs. The latter were found above in the Mickie write-up, and that was possibly depicted by Mickie Mouse (yes, cartoonists did use heraldic colors and codes for their characters), meaning that Mickie's were Wright/Wrieti liners and therefore batched with Reeds. The red Sabine and Dagger bull may be the red Pack bull, for there is a Polish Pack surname.

The Merovingian Hyksos

Previously, Pack-like surnames were traced to "Apachnas," the name of as Hyksos king. The Hyksos, after they left Egypt, were figured large in my view as the creators of mainline, Greek myth. In other words, they became the Greeks, who were otherwise called, Danaans, from Tanis, a co-capital of the Hyksos, one might say, beside their capital of Avaris. The Meshwesh that ruled Egypt from Tanis in the 21st dynasty are viewed by me as the same peoples to which the Hyksos king, Khyan, belonged to. Apepi, the Hyksos pharaoh who followed Khyan, was pegged as the Pepins, and their horse symbol is very appropriate for the Hyksos. Khyan was traced to Keon-, Kane, and Keen-like surnames. One writer said that Apachnas was an alternative name for Khyan, and I took that position because German Bachs showed a gold calf at one time, which I claimed to be a symbol of the golden calf in the Exodus...because I believe that Khyan/Apachnas was the evil Exodus pharaoh...because I believe that historians do not have their dating of Egyptian dynasties correct. They started too early with the first dynasty, several hundred years before the Flood (impossible), and were still framing the Egyptian kings, as per the Hyksos period (15th - 17th dynasty), a little too early.

The German Bachs are the ones with a so-called steer (once showed as a calf), and a "TU NE Cede" motto phrase that traced well to "Tunis," a Tanis-like term. In my estimation, Tunis, a Carthaginian city, was named after Tanis elements as per the migration of Meshwesh of Tanis, and so I expect king Massena to have been of the Tanis-fold Meshwesh. Hence, a fundamental and ancient link of proto-Macey's to the proto-Kane's can explain the Macie/MacKane surname using a BUCKle, code for one Apachnas line. I claim that the Meshwesh were Meshech in Mus of Lake Van, and that the Mus nature of Apachnas' bloodline named Moses...because the pharaoh's daughter, according to the Bible, named Moses.

This is to say that the Hyksos trace to Mieszko, and mythical Popiel of the Mouse Tower can serve to reveal an Apepi-Hyksos line. We can see that "Moses" is a mouse-like term, and the Polish word for "mouse" (I forget the spelling), in the case of this tower, is a Mysian-like term, and can be regarded as the mythical Muse's (Amazons and Gorgons) while Apollo, the leader of the Muse's, named Poland. Missys are listed with horse-using Masseys, and it's a PEGASus, a potential, ancient code for Apachnas liners. Maisys, like Masseys, use a quartered Crest symbol.

This is all to say that the Pickernell variation of Spikers may not have been a mere variation of "Spiker," but more of a term indicating a Syphax merger with Apachnas-branch Meshwesh (Spikers use the fret and fretty). In any case, it may not be correct to view Pickernells and their branches as identical with Pucks, Puchers and Bucks with their branches. Buckinghams, beside the first-known Spikers of London, use besants = a Massey-like symbol i.e. appropriate for a Meshwesh-Apachnas entity. Bucks (probably the Conte / Cone antlers) use more nebuly, as do the Swale's. Nebuly refers to clouds, and as I trace "Khyan" to mythical Ixion, it just so happens that he was paired with Nephele, the Greek for "cloud," as the parents if the Centaurs = horse-depicted peoples. Ixion was given a wheel symbol, that of the chariot, we may assume, and Hyksos are said to have introduced the chariot into Africa. We recall the pharaoh's chariots that attacked Moses in the Exodus.

And then we find the Swale's (shares the Dutch-Ghent fesse) traced to John of Gaunt's relative, and John married a wheel-depicted Roet that traces to the Mieszko's. Bucks were first found in LINcolnshire, otherwise called Lindsey, and because the Rhodes' were first found in Lincolnshire, I traced it to ancient Lindos, on Rhodes, home of the Tanis-line Danaans before they reached Greece. One therefore needs to view the Hyksos on Rhodes, a perfect term to form a roto = wheel symbol, as Roets use. Thus, we should trace the namers of Rieti to Rhodes. We saw that Spoltons/Spauldings, suspect with Spoleto, not far from Rieti, are traced to Meschins i.e. who married a Lincolnshire family. Bucks were first found in Lincolnshire. The PEGasus was in Lycia, on-shore from Rhodes, fighting the so-called Khimera dragon that was code for the Cimmerians (anciently the Gamir) that named ancient Kamiros, on Rhodes.

Why does the Lindsey Crest (includes a coronet) show a blackish swan in the design once shown for the black Joseph swan? CHAPLets use FIVE (can be code for QUINTUS Caepio) black swans in both colors of the Joseph swan. The way to word this is to say that Lindos-of-Rhodes peoples were the namers of the Rhodanus river (France), where Ligurians are known to have been founded, and they included swan-liners. Ligurians then formed alliances with Hannibal and his Numidian cavalry out of which Caiaphas' parent(s) is expected.

I have traced antlers (Buck symbol) to ANTALya, a city of Pisidians in the Lycia theater. This picture can explain MASSA-Carrara at Pisa of Italy, for Caria (home of Maso Sea peoples) is even-more directly on-shore of Rhodes than is Lycia. Pegasus was an ally of Bellerophon, perhaps the mythical Belas/Belus that was code for Pelusium at the Tanis theater, and Bellerophon looks well placed to form the Massey-related Bellamys. BelleroPHON seems to me to have a PHOENician code, and Poseidon, code for Pisidians, apparently, was a Phoenician character to which the myth writers traced the proto-Danaans out of Egypt (the myth writers, so far as I've read, did not identify where in Egypt Danaans arose, but I figured it out because Belas was made the father of Danaus). Poseidon was made directly related to CadMUS.

And myth writers thought to identify the first Greek Danaans with Danae, descended from mythical PERSeus, a Gorgon liner. Perseus is thus revealed as the same entity as mythical PARIS, son of PRIAM, code for PARIUM/Parion, a real Gorgon city, of the Muses, in Mysia. You can bet that this was the line to the Mouse Tower. Priam's wife was HECuba, and Paris' brother was HECtor, what looks like code for Hyksos liners. The Mieszko-related Haughts show a Hoctor variation, by the way.

When I found a coin of the Parisii (Paris, France) with a man's head having worms for hair, I knew that Paris was from the Parion Gorgons, for ancient Gorgons were depicted with snakes for hair. And as Paris was a Trojan prince, it explained the Troyes location not far from France. A Troy surname uses a horse, the Trojan symbol, and, so, we can glean that the Hyksos became the Hector-rooted Trojans. The co-founder of Trojans was made Teucer, whom I see as code for a line of Togarmah, and that latter was a Biblical man, nephew of the man, Meshech. Togarmah was a son of Gomer, whom many have identified with Cimmerians i.e. that went through Rhodes.

You've heard the French called "frogs" in derogatory language. Well, I say that HECTor was named after HECATE, a likely take after KEKET, the frog goddess of Egypt. The Colchian princess, daughter of Aeetes, was a worshiper of Hecate, but Aeetes was the same as Attis, the chief PHRYGian (like "frog") god. They say that Phrygians descended from Armenians, but then I say Hyksos (otherwise called Asians, from Asia Minor) were from Mus of Armenia.

Aeetes' daughter was Medea, and she traces excellently to Medan, the Biblical daughter of Keturah and Abraham. I traced the Keturah>Medan line to mythical KODRos, father of Medon, in Athens, before learning that Medea had ridden her chariot, pulled through the sky by 12 dragons Santa-Claus style, to Athens. That was when I realized that "PRIAM" was a code for some people group named after ABRAM (his name before God changed it to Abraham). And the Hyksos are even said to have been a Hebrew peoples. Some mistaken them for Israelites. I say they were from Keturah, in part, anyway, and that she was a Hebrew (Israelites did not yet exist in her day).

To make the story short (there is a lot to it), the Hyksos Hebrews are expected in the Aphrodite-line namers of Abruzzo, from Hebrews on the other side of the Euphrates i.e. at the Habur river, near Armenia. The Bible says that God called Abraham from "beyond the river." While the Eburovices of the Abruzzo people group co-founded Yorkshire with Parisii, we can suggest that Parisii were likewise Hebrews of the Hyksos kind. This can be the backdrop to many of the Yorkshire elements that I've covered (Swale's were first found in Yorkshire), but then the Levi's, first found in Paris, can be suspect with the Hyksos Hebrews there. Abraham lived in HEBRON, and the Keep-loving Hepburns (horse, roses for Rhodes liners) have a Hebron variation as well as a CHEVRON, and three chevrons are used by Levi's. What does it mean when they use three chevrons? That they can claim relatives from three Hebron liners?

So, are Hebrons/Hepburns Syphax-liner Hebrews of the Hyksos kind? The Spikers were first found in the same place (London) as the Chappes-like Capes', and I'm in the midst of exploring whether the Chappes' of Paris were Syphax>Caiaphas liners. The first Chapmans were neighbors of the first Capes, and they use a chevron in Hebron-chevron colors. The first Capone's were likewise neighbors of the first capes;, and Capone's are in the colors and format of Spice's, both using chevrons in colors reversed from the Levi chevrons.

I can trace Hyksos to royal Paris, by another method. As Apepi was also "Apophis," he traces well to PAPHlagonians. There was a people group, Paphlagonian Heneti, and Heneti founded the Veneti, whom Merovingian Franks claimed to descend from. Pepins are known to have been Merovingian rulers. No coincidence, which is why I trace Pepins, and Babenbergs / Babbenburg, for that matter, to Paphlagonian Heneti (Babenbergs were founded by Poppo I). The Pepoli's, who smack of mythical Popiel, were first found in Bologna, and share a Shield filled with black-and-white checks with Spanish Majors. Were the latter Mago liners?

It's a very good bet that VENeti were from Lake VAN, land of Mus = Hyksos. It just so happens that mythical Pelops, ruler of Lydia, ruled out of Eneti (a version of "Heneti"), and that he married a horse-depicted line of Amazons = Meshech liners (of Grecian Pisa) who I see at the naming of Mus. He married Hippodamia ("hippo" means "horse"), and her father OenoMAUS, was given a chariot wheel symbol. It's obvious, isn't it, that the Amazons of Pisa were the Mus-Hyksos line. OENomaus traces to the OENeus river, home of the Maezaei that look like they named Julia Maesa Bassianus, and this line traces to Basina, whom the first Merovingian king married. The house of Este, in the land of the Veneti, is said to have Frank roots, and the Arms of Este share a white, spread eagle with Childs.

As the fog on the glass becomes clearer, we start to realize that the Hyksos-Amazons of Pisa became the Merovingians, even as Paris, France, was a Hyksos>Trojan line. I have made a major-breakthrough discovery in all of this, yet Google suppresses my work. I have been able to trace a major people group, the Franks, to Hyksos in 1500 BC. In fact, I can trace mythical MEROVEE to MEROWE (now in Sudan), for it was also called BEDEWE, according to Wikipedia's Meroe article, and the known ancestors of Merovingians were the Salian Franks at the mouth of the Rhine, where also the BATAVI lived. Therefore, I trace "BEDEWE" to PADOVA, in the land of the Veneti, and assume that the Amurru (Amorites) namers of Merowe were amongst the Heneti. Padova is where Este is located, and where Abruzzo's/Abreu's (= Hyksos) were first found.

I had traced "Padova" to "Padasus" in the Troad, and as Troy was in the Troad, note that the mother of Trojans Batia (daughter of Teucer), may have named Batavi, in which case she becomes suspect as code for Padasus, which must have named the Padus river, now the Po, the chief river of the Veneti. It could appear that the Heneti were in alliance with Padasus and the Hector Trojans. The myth on the Trojan war makes Lydia a Trojan ally.

Childeric ruled at THURINgia-like TOURNai, a good reason to expect both of them from the TURANO river. As this river follows parallel with the Salto, and flows through AVEZZANo (i.e. the Salto flows near this location), while the latter term is like "BESSIN," and while Bessins share the Sale/Sallett bend, we can glean that Basina of Thuringia had roots or descent at/around Avezzano. In fact, the Sale's/Salletts use fleur-de-lys, symbol of Childeric's household, and so they probably named the Salian Franks.

I had claimed that the Child Coat is a version of the Hebron Coat because Hebrons are said to be from CHILLingham while Chills are listed with Childs. Again, both Coats use a white-on-red chevron. It dawned on me as I awoke this morning that the "Keep TRYSt" motto of Hebrons may be from TURRIS liners, and I see turris / tower liners as part of the Turano liners. It just so happens that Pellicans (and HEBRon-like ABReu's) use the tower in the colors of the Childs / Hebrons, while Pellicans were first found in the same place as Caiaphas-suspect Josephs. And I see Caiaphas' line behind "Keep." Keep's use the weaver's shuttle, and the Weber-branch of Weavers uses the Pepin bend-with-FLEUR in colors reversed. HICKs share gold wavy bars, and gold fleur-de-lys, with Webers.

One can fathom that Grecian Pisans named Pisa of Italy, and it just so happens that the Italian Pisa surname can be using the Massin/Mason lion. It's split into two colors schemes, one being the Rita lion. That can make a connection between the Turano-Salto area to Pierleoni in Pisa, but doesn't tell us whether Pierleoni had ancestry in Pisa. The Pisa lion is in both colors of what I regard as the Caepio-line lion, and it's the Bruce lion too so as to trace to Eburovices and Abruzzo.

So, where "FRANK" is a Hyksos-rooted peoples, what about "VARANGi"? I traced the Varangian Rus to wheel liners, the Redones of France, and back to Rhodes, probably before I knew of the Hyksos, or that they had a wheel symbol. In fact, Rhodes may have been named after the wheel symbol of Hyksos as some Hyksos branch took it on. The Redones were also called, Ruthene, and Russi, and it just so happens that Ruths/Rothers share the white-on-red chevron with Childs / Hebrons. Ruths/ROTHers (stars) were first found at Moray, also called MORAVIA, much like "Merovee," and Morays use stars in the colors of the Este eagle while stars are suspect as code for Istria > Este liners. Again, Peter Pollock of ROTHES castle, in Morayshire, traces to Pola/Pula on Istria, and while Pollocks are said to descend from Childeric's son, Rothers use the same chevron as Child's. Rothes' were first found in Shropshire, where Peter's father lived (if not Peter himself), and Rothes' are using a version of the Sale/Sallett Coat.

There is a Turris/Terras surname, first found in Moray (using a Coat that I link to Scotts), which can apply to the MacDonald / Alexander motto. The Alexanders, traced to the Scott write-up, can be using a version of the Gloves Coat, and if so, it tends to trace Merovingians of the Turris kind to Moray. The Turris bend is in the colors of the Charo/Claro bend, and the latter use a bull. The Turris bend in on a gold Shield, as is the Turin/Thurin bend. The Tours and Pellicans share a giant, white tower. Towers use it in gold, and are said to be of the Kendal house started by John of Gaunt. I can imagine this line at Tournai.

Russells, like "Roussillon" in the land of Redones, share the Meschin scallops, and use the same lion as seen at le-Meschin's Wikipedia article. The "Che" motto term of Russells may be for the Chee's/Cheatle's (Cheshire). The Lindseys, suspect from Lindos, are traced in their write-up to a tenant relationship with earls of Chester (Cheshire), and said to be descended from RANDOLPH Toeni; it's know that Toeni's were Malahule liners, as were the rulers of the Bessin that named Ranulph/Randolph le Meschin. Malahule was a Dane Rus and probably had some Redone / Varangian blood. Lindseys use the Stewart band of checks, and were therefore a possible Pollock-related line.

Toeni's are suspect with Anthonys/Antons, who share a white goat in Crest with Russells, and have a leopard face in both colors of the Russell lion. We have thereby seen a Lindsey link to Russells, fully expected where Russells were Rhodes liner-Rus. And Anthonys/Antons were first found in Lincolnshire, where le-Meschin got his wife, and where Rhodes' (leopard) were first found who use Basina-liner besants. It's known that an early Lindsey was in Lincolnshire, as expected. Rhodes' even use the Russell / le-Meschin / Talbot lion in both colors; note MalaHULE, for Hule's/Hulls and Halls (Lincolnshire) use talbot dogs. The ANTON variation reflects mythical ANTENor, the Trojan leader of the Heneti that founded the Veneti, though I think Antons trace to Mark Antony in particular, whose lines included known king-Massena liners. Still, the giant leopard face of Antons suggest the Pierleoni, and the leopard face together with the goat suggests the human-sacrifice cult of Boofima, which had both symbols, including leopard GLOVES, which I strongly see as the reason for the Macey gauntlet gloves (Boofima traces to Redone-suspect Roets which John of Gaunt married).

It's just dawned on me that Hule's/Hulls are sharing the ermined chevron of gauntlet-glove WAYNe's because the Hull Coat is in the colors and format of VAUGHNs and Glove's/Glovers. The cross-bow in the Glove Crest is interesting because I trace "Boof" to Boff and Bough liners...that probably formed the Bows. Boughs/Bows share the Roet motto term, "Quaerere." Glove's may now be gleaned with the gold Masci wing in Crest, beside the cross-bow. As Vaughns and Wayne's are Heneti>Veneti suspects (because Veynes'/Vans use the Wayne's gloves), might GLOVe's have formed as play on the Boofima symbol from a line of "CLOVis"? The question begged whether Glove's would come up when entering, GLOVES, and, yes, the Coat came up. Glovers are in Rothes colors, and first found in the same place (Glovers are said to be from Shrewsbury), wherefore its notable that Glovers use the fleur of Sale's/Salletts (i.e. Clovis ancestry) and Pendragons (almost the Vaughn Coat). I always view Pendragon > Arthur liners as Merovingians in Britain (the claim is almost a decade old). Wayne's are sharing the Arthur pelican, and both use chevrons in the colors of the Child chevron.

This pelican must be code for Pellicans, first found in Maine, and then Maine's share the pheon, black and pointed down, with the Sale Crest. See also the Helm pheons, recalling that Helms (probably in the Pendragon helmet) are now being traced to Umbria liners. Umbria has Spoleto, and while Spoltons/Spauldings are traced to le-Meschin himself, Felthams/Feltmans, with a "spolia" motto term, show an armored arm i.e. with a gauntleted hand.

It's hard to say whether the Feltman motto term, "PorTANTI," is code for TANTAlus (perhaps should be read as "PortANTi), but it's worth repeating that I see his name originating as code for ANTALya, to which we might trace the code, ANTenor, and then Feltmans share the leopard face with Antons. I trace Tantalus to Antalya because it was in the land of PISidians while his son married rulers of Pisa. But Tantalus was in Eneti, suggesting an Antalya merger with Heneti Hyksos depicted by the Trojan code, Antenor.

Did Antenor that have a "nor" suffix for Nahor, Abraham's brother? After all, Abraham's line with Keturah (Genesis 25) has traced excellently to the Priam Trojans. After Childeric started in Tournai, Clovis moved the headquarters to Paris i.e. a Trojan-Hyksos haunt. Mythical Nor, founder of Norway, could have been related to the mythical VANir of Swedish mythology.

Clovis was born, Clodevech, and Clode's are listed with McLeods. In the McLeod Crest, a bull that possibly links to the turris / tower liners to Thuringia, and to the mythical Quinotaur of Merovingians. The flags on either side of the McLeod bull head can be code for Flags/Flecks, who share the Coat, almost, of Palmers, while Feltmans use a "palma" motto term. The double Feltham/Feltman bars (Gloves colors) are colors reversed from the same of Palmers and Flecks. The latter two have their double bars in the colors of the double chevrons of Clovis/Clovells. The McLeod Coat has a white castle, a symbol that may have been related to towers (Chattans use the castle but Chatans use the tower).

So, yes, Glovers look like Basina > Clovis liners. The Feltwells (Levi kin?) were brought to topic as per the Spine write-up, and Spine's can be using a version of the Glove Coat.

The Hicks, said to be from an early Hickes' (like "HYKSos) family, need some mention, as they are said to be from a SAUTEby entity while Sauts/SALTs are said to have named at least one Salt location. As Hicks use fleur-de-lys, they have the Salto > Salian > Clovis line all over them. As Clovis was born, CLODevech, note that Sauts/Salts (BROKEN chevron) use the colors and format of CLOTs/Claude's. Sauts/Salts were first found in the same place as Litchfield, where St. Chad is said to have operated, and Chads share the potent / crutch feature with Avezzano's. Hicks are in ABREU/Abruzzo colors, mentionable because their "heure" motto term can be code for Eure liners, and EVREUx is in Eure. Moreover, Hicks were first found in Yorkshire, home of Eburovices.

The Merovingian dynasty came to an end when the Pepins betrayed them, and chose Charles MARTel instead as their king, who was a Pepin liner. Josephs use the MARTLet.


Table of Contents

web site analytic