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October 11 - 17, 2016

Back to Some Heraldy; this time the Taylards

The lunar eclipse of July 16, 2000 (below) was of a central-path totality, virtually the most perfect an eclipse can ever be. Fred Espenak manages the NASA-eclipse pages, and presumably creates some of the figures upon them. For this eclipse, he has the sun size of 15'42.4" (15 minutes, 42.4 seconds), which is 15.706666 arc-minutes (because 42.4 is .706666 of 60 seconds). We divide 15.706666 by 60 to convert the figure to degrees, finding .261777. That is, when looking at the sun in the sky, and imagining the circle that it makes around the earth, the sun was .261777 degree of the total 360 degrees of the circle. If one were to draw two lines from the eye, or any point on the earth surface, to the two, opposite sides of the sun, the two lines would have a spread of .2617777 degree. That is, unless Fred's sun-size angle is taken from the earth core (the precise center of the sun circle). The last chapter's investigation into his sun lines suggested that he takes the angles from the earth surface. NASA's fact sheet on the moon takes the average moon-size angle from the surface.

I now want to test my method, used in the last chapter, to see whether it gets a sun of the same size as what Fred reports. I will then calculate the true distance to the sun with my sun-size figure. NASA's fact sheet for the sun (below) has the smallest sun size rounded off at 1,887 arc-seconds, though the triangle calculator tells me 1,887.6 as the best NASA's solar-distance figures allows me to have. I wrote Dave Williams, the manager on the sun and moon fact sheets, a couple of weeks ago, telling him that these pages should have more-precise figures, for anyone like myself, wanting to investigate / understand matters a little better than a high-school student doing a week-end science project, but, so far, he has not provided the figures I've asked for. In fact, when I asked him point-blank for the largest and smallest moon sizes, which are not on the fact sheet at all, he didn't even return mail, though he had returned two previous mails promptly. I asked Dave for a simple moon-distance calculator for any day or hour, but he did not respond.

The triangle calculator below can be used to find the smallest sun size when we put half of their solar diameter (full diameter is said to be 864,953 miles) into the edge-a box with the furthest-possible solar distance (as they see it) into the edge-b box. The best NASA allows us to do is to use its solar distance of 152,100,000 kilometers = 94,510,558 miles. With that number in edge-b, the angle in the angle-A box is said to be .26217131 degree. Multiply it by 2 and then by 3,600 to find 1,887.63 arc-seconds as the solar diameter. As it rounds off to 1,888, it's not satisfactory for being NASA's official 1,887. Using the largest number possible (152149999) in edge-b (still qualifies for their 152.1 million), the angle comes out at 1,887.013. It means that I've got to guess between 1,887.01 and 1,887.49.

Try to find an aphelion calculator / table online. If NASA has one, it's well hidden. This lunar eclipse was ?? days and hours after aphelion (when the sun was at its smallest size = furthest distance). The page below gives the dates for every aphelion and perihelion for the years 2001 to 2100, but I need it for 2000. For perihelion of January 2001, the table below has January 4, at 8:52 am Greenwich Time. As you can see, it doesn't appear possible for the novice to predict aphelion for any year based on the date of the previous or following perihelion. A guess could be as many as three days off. The page reads: "All calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy." It appears that NASA wants to be off the hook for any errors.

I'm reading from one site that perihelion in 2000 was on January 3. And from a NASA page, "On the 4th of July, Earth will be at its greatest distance from the Sun in the year 2000." However, the US Naval Observatory gives aphelion for July 3 (2000), at 23:49 pm Universal Time (same as Greenwich Time, or GMT). We are not told how they arrived to the times, whether by hands-on work in measuring the sun's size, or by computer program. Should we just trust? Then why does NASA have it on July 4, since 23:49 on the 3rd in England is five hours earlier on America's eastern side? Are NASA's representative just sloppy, or do they sow deliberate confusion and foggy facts?

The lunar eclipse is said to have been at 13:55 UT, July 16, 2000, just 12.5875 days after the Observatory's aphelion. The number of days between aphelion and the following perihelion (8:52 on January 4) is 184.377 days. We divide 12.5875 by 184.377 to find that eclipse was .06827 of the time between aphelion and perihelion. Next, we subtract the largest sun size from the smallest, but the best NASA would let me do for the smallest size is between 1,887.01 and 1,887.49. The largest size was figured earlier at 1,951.8. We can try 1,951.8 - 1,887.01 = 64.8. We multiply the latter by .06827 (= 4.4239) and add the result to 1,887.01 = 1,891.434 arc-seconds = .525398 degree (sun's diameter) = .26269915 degree as the solar radius. That angle comes out larger (.262761) when we use 1,887.49 instead of 1,887.01.

Fred's eclipse page has the sun smaller at .261777 degree, which will not make a significant difference when we use the line to find the solar distance. What we need now is an accurate lunar-eclipse line, that being the earth-umbra line. As I showed (several chapters ago), Fred's page for the lunar eclipse under discussion has the times wrongly entered so that the moon's velocity works out to nearly 2,000 mi/hr, yet NASA claims the moon's slowest-ever velocity is much higher at 2,156.4 mi/hr. This is why I accuse NASA of deliberate falsification to keep the 93-million-mile hoax looking good. A central-path eclipse has the potential to devastate that hoax, if only we could get the correct times for U1, U2 and U3. Fred has the false times entered to make it appear that the earth-umbra line points to the edge of their false sun of 864,938 miles in diameter.

There was reported 2.87 hours between U1 and U3. If the moon were made to move at 2,156.4 mi/hr, since it cannot travel slower, the earth umbra works out to 6,188.868 miles wide, where the moon passed through it. But Fred claims that the umbra is only 5,738 (or 5,740) miles wide where the moon passed through it. This is of extreme importance because the angle of the umbra line can be calculated if only we knew: 1) the umbra diameter where the moon passed through it; 2) the lunar distance during the eclipse. And this is why the eclipse pages do not report these distances. It's probably the reason that NASA is loath to provide any calculators where we can find the lunar distance for any day or hour. I can't even find a walk-me-through method of tabulating the distance on my own. I asked Dave Williams at NASA to provide this thing, but he was more-or-less evasive.

I was able to find the lunar distance at the eclipse as 120 miles less than the distance that the apogee-perigee calculator below has for July 15, 2000, the day before the eclipse. The calculator has the distance at 406,199 kilometers (254,000.4 miles) at perfect apogee on the 15th. Finding the angle of the umbra line, using the information above, is therefore as easy as putting 253880 (no comma) in the edge-b box of the triangle calculator below, along with 864.566 in the edge-a box, to find the line at .195 degree.

With the earth diameter at 7,918 miles, and an earth umbra at 6,188.868 miles in diameter, you will find that one edge of the umbra is 864.566 miles "lower" than an edge of the earth ( (7,918 - 6,188.868) / 2 = 864.566). Therefore, the umbra line needs to rise 864.566 miles over a span of 253,880 miles, and this very line will also go to the edge of the sun. All we need to know is how far from the earth the line will contact the edge of the sun. However, keep in mind that this is a false line. It is not the line to the sun because Fred doesn't provide the correct times for the eclipse.

I am going to use the line anyway, to throw a pie in Fred's face, because the line is according to his times, as well as according to the slowest-possible lunar speed as reported by NASA. The correct speed is a little faster, but this only makes the sun work out to be closer to the earth.

So, we have the umbra line worked out to .195 degree, and we found the sun-size line above to be .26269915 degree at its smallest (though Fred reports one smaller). These two lines will meet at the edge of the sun, and we can calculate how far from the earth they will meet simply because we know their angles when beginning at the earth. The way to discover the distance of spread for each line, per unit distance toward the sun, is to enter both angles separately into the angle-A box with 1 in the edge-b box. For the umbra line, it presents us with .0034 mile (or kilometers if you wish) of spread per one mile toward the sun; for the sun-size line, the spread is .00458 mile. We subtract them to find that the sun line spreads .00118 mile more than the umbra line, per mile toward the sun.

We now need to know how far apart the lines begin. The sun-size line always starts at the center line of the earth, the one that cut's it in half with a line toward the sun's core, and the umbra line always starts at the outer edge of the planet, meaning simply that the lines begin 3,959 miles apart. As the sun-size line catches up to the umbra line by .00118 mile per mile toward the sun, we divide 3,959 by .00118 miles to find that the lines meet just 3.355 million miles from earth. And that's one giant pie in Fred's face.

However, if Fred had given the correct times, the solar distance might go up a little, but only to about 5 million. One can estimate what the correct times were (for U1 and U2, anyway) by first using the slowest lunar speed. Fred has the time between U1 (11:57:17 am) and U2 (13:02:05) as almost 1 hour, 5 minutes. It can be plainly seen (below) that the moon travels one lunar diameter between U1 and U2, plus about the width of one pie, wherefore the true time needs to be much closer to 1 minute exactly, and probably a little less than one minute. .

Let's put it this way, that as the moon was moving faster than 2,156.4 mi/hr, we can put it at 2,160. As the moon is 2,160 miles wide, it means that the moon will have traveled 1 lunar diameter in 1 hour exactly. But if the moon was moving faster than 2,160 mi/hr, the time would need to be less than 1 hour. Yet Fred, the goon, has it 5 minutes more than 1 hour, which works out to about 2,000 mi/hr. There is no way that Fred can get out of this one, and I will challenge him to his face, just as soon as I ask Dave Williams for his email address. And I will give this information to Dave himself to see what he does with it, and of course I'll report back, either here or a coming chapter, to tell you the outcome. If the pie ends up in my face, so be it.

Even though we can get a close approximation of the U1-U2 time, and even if we knew it exactly, it's the U1 to U3 (14:49:06 pm) time that provides the umbra diameter. I don't know that reducing U1-U2 by 5 minutes also reduces U1-U3 by the same span. But Fred knows what the truth is. Or, at least, he knows where to find it.

If U2 starts at 13:02, as Fred has it, then U3 would start at 14:49, as Fred has it. But if U2 starts 5 minutes earlier, then U3 would start at 14:54. The latter scenario would enlarge U1 to U3 by 10 minutes or more, to about 3.4 hours (up from 2.87, as Fred has it). If we tabulate 3.4 hours at 1,260 mi/hr, it's 7,344 miles wide for the umbra (umbra line becomes less steep), which makes the solar distance a lot less than 3 million miles (because the sun-size line would meet a less-steep line earlier). How, then, can Fred save himself from this disaster? How can the evolutionist fiends, the world over, come to terms with the exposure of the 93-million-mile hoax? No problem; evolutionists have no consciences when it comes to lying. It's their nature to lie, all the time. They create the wildest of fantasies and tell them to our children with straight faces. They go to their graves confessing a Godless universe.

The only way that Fred can save himself is to lessen the umbra diameter. He has chosen to do so by altering U1 to U2 so that the moon travels 2,000 mi/hr, in which case he has the umbra diameter at 2.87 x 2,000 = 5,740 miles. Other data on his page gives the diameter as 5,738 miles. It's a lose-lose for Fred. He's not able to explain this, which should explain why I could not find one other central-path lunar eclipse, in all of his pages going back to 1900 (I may have missed one, but I didn't see any). I could only find one more central-path eclipse, but that's in the future, and it's so near in the future (2018) that Fred is forced to report on it. He would seem odd not to. And he has the lunar speed even less than 2,000 mi/hr for that one, meaning that he's shot himself with two silver bullets. Fred's dead. He's apparently hiding the other central-path eclipses.

We can try the math again using the umbra size that Fred uses (5,740 miles). The angle of the umbra line is found with: (7,918 - 5,740) / 2 = 1,089. That is, the umbra line needs to rise 1,089 miles over a span of 253,880 miles before it continues at the same angle to the sun's edge. We feed 253880 (no comma) in the edge-b box, along with 1,089 in the edge-a box, to find the line at .256 degree. We can even use his sun-size line of .261777; clear the calculator and put it into the angle-A box, with 1 in edge-b to find the line spread of .004568902 mile per 1 mile toward the sun. Clear the calculator and put .256 in angle-A along with 1 in edge-b to find the umbra-line spread of .004468073. Subtract the lunar-line spread from the sun-size spread to get a difference of 39.26 million miles. What happened? I know. Fred and the other goons, countless of them, who know exactly this problem that I'm pointing out, are willing to distort the umbra diameter only so much, but not enough to get their 93-million-mile sun, and then they never tell anyone about the method I'm using to find the solar distance.

They never tell anyone that they should try to find where the umbra-line meets the sun-size line, even though this is a high-school level of figuring the solar distance. They keep the simple method from us all, and give us the complicated methods, without sufficient explanation that we might test them. They give us Venus-transit garbage made to appear as though it works, and they give us light-speed garbage that no one can test. They just get a few of their stooges to report false distances using rigged light-speed experiments, and that's their hoax in a nutshell. You are to trust that they are being honest and know what they are doing. And they will feed this to your children even though they know that the umbra line meets the sun-size line about 5 million miles away. Don't kid yourself, they know it. Fred can't hide behind the excuse that he received the umbra diameter from someone else, or from NASA's computer program. Fred is a man only if he comes clean, and if that requires whistle-blowing, do it.

Light refraction (bending of light) from the atmosphere is not the same as light magnification from the atmosphere, but neither one, if they even occur, changes what we see in a lunar eclipse. Whether the entire eclipse has been bent or magnified, the moon relative to the umbra is to scale. One simply takes the lunar velocity in an eclipse, and uses it to find the umbra diameter, yet Fred does not use this method because he's lying about the umbra diameter. The man is despicable because he knows what I'm telling you, yet lies anyway.

Lunar Eclipse of July 26, 1953

I have "central-path lunar eclipse" written in six chapters all online, but when I Google-search that phrase, Google brings up only one of the six. This is not an isolated case. I have checked many things on Google to learn that Google hides the bulk of my pages from searches, and sometimes Google refuses to bring up a page at all, for example, if I mention globalists of the modern day. I'm being censored.

One webpage speaks on the July-2000 eclipse, and adds: "The last time the moon was more centrally located occurred on July 26, 1953. The next time will be June 26, 2029. An even more centrally positioned lunar eclipse will occur in 2340. Furthermore, at the time of the July 16th lunar eclipse, the moon will have just passed apogee, its farthest distance from the Earth. This means that the moon will be moving at nearly its slowest orbital velocity. The moon's motion against the background of stars will also be at its slowest, and the moon will take longer to pass through the shadow of the Earth. The maximum duration of totality for a lunar eclipse is 1 hour, 47 minutes. On July 16th the interval of totality will be only one minute less."

I've just loaded Fred Espenak's lunar eclipse for July 26, 1953. I don't recall seeing this eclipse before, and "1953" is in none of my eclipse-related pages. Here we have an eclipse where the moon was closer (appears larger) than the 2000 eclipse. The time between U1 (10:32:49 am) and U2 (11:30:19) is less than one hour due to the faster velocity of the moon. Both eclipses are in July so that the earth umbra was essentially identical for both, yet with the moon closer to earth in 1953, it had to pass through a larger umbra diameter than that in July, 2000. Even though the umbra was wider, the moon passed through it faster due to its much-greater velocity.

Perigee, when the moon is at its closest and fastest, was on July 28, 1953, at 13:48 pm. Little more than two days separate the eclipse from perigee, and with NASA's fastest-possible lunar velocity at 2,407 mi/hr, one could venture a quick guess of what the velocity was at the eclipse. We wouldn't need to guess if Fred would put the velocity figure on his eclipse page, but that would be like shooting himself. I say that even before doing the math. He can't possibly have the correct velocity for a central-path eclipse. Once we have the velocity figure, we'll have the umbra diameter according to Fred's false U1-U3 times, and this will allow us to prove that his times are false...because it won't get him his sun at 93 million miles.

To calculate the solar distance, we also need to know the lunar distance at this eclipse. I have developed a way to find the lunar distance by known free-fall data. At apogee, the moon was neither falling toward earth, nor rising away from it. At apogee, the moon is beginning its free-fall. The rate of fall is known to be identical whether any object falls straight down, or, like the moon, any object is falling while having a near-horizontal path across the earth's surface. A cannon ball dropped from the hand will hit the ground at exactly the same time as a cannon ball fired horizontally.

At the apogee (July 16, 1953) before the eclipse, the moon is said (by the apogee/perigee calculator below) to be 404,878 kilometers = 251,580 miles away. It had dropped 26,387 miles to 362397 kilometers = 225,183 miles by perigee on July 28. To prepare this for the free-fall calculation, we need to know the time of fall between apogee and perigee, as well as the time of fall between apogee and the eclipse. The first one is 11 days, 22 hours and 35 seconds = 11.926 days = 1,030,440 seconds, and will get us the acceleration rate of the moon for this particular fall.

At the free-fall calculator below, 1,030,440 is entered in the top box, with an acceleration rate of .000079988 in the g box, because these numbers together get a fall distance of the 26,387 miles above. That is, the fall-distance box has 42,465,892.9 meters = 42,466 kilometers = 26,387 miles.

Having done that, we keep the same number in the g box, only this time, in the top box, we put the number of seconds between apogee and the eclipse. That time span is 9 days, 21 hours, 8 minutes = 9.8772 days = 853,339 seconds. The fall distance now is 18,096 miles, or from 251,580 miles high to 233,484 miles. This was the lunar distance at the eclipse, so far as this method is concerned, and I do think I have it right.

Everyone seems to agree that the largest angular moon is 35.5 arc-minutes. Fred has the moon's radius at this eclipse at 16.343 arc-minutes = 32.686 arc-minutes for the diameter, though I'm not sure whether one or more is measured from the earth core versus the surface. Dividing the smaller from the larger gets a difference of .9757. Although NASA has a rounded-off 357,000 kilometers as the nearest distance, I had found some of the lowest in the range of 356,500 = 221,520 miles in the apogee/perigee-calculator page. The triangle calculator says that this distance is equal to 33.52 arc-minutes. Dividing 221,520 by my calculated distance (233,484) for the eclipse should get the .9757 above. But it doesn't. Instead, it gets .94876.

A possible solution to the problem is to view the 221,520 as a measurement from the earth core that needs to be 3,959 miles less (217,561) so that it's from the surface, for the last chapter suggested rather strongly that Fred's moon sizes are measured from the surface. We therefore re-do the math to find: 217,561 / 233,484 = .93. We're not done yet. With 217,561 in the edge-b box and half the solar radius in edge-a, the angle works out to be such that, when multiplied by 2 to get the angular diameter, it's 34.1297 arc-minutes. We then divide Fred's 32.686 by 34.1297 to find .9577, still not a match with my .94876. Did Fred alter the true size of the moon so as to report a false size for this eclipse? He sure reported a false moon size for the solar eclipse investigated in the last chapter.

Fred puts neither the lunar velocity nor the lunar distance on his eclipse pages, because both are needed to find the correct solar distance using eclipse lines. What method can we use to find the lunar velocity at the eclipse? If you go to the free-fall calculator and enter two times separately that has one twice as much as the other (the number in the g-box is irrelevant; use any one but keep it the same for both operations), you will find that the drop velocity is twice as much too. In the same way, I conclude that the orbital (horizontal) velocity is proportional to the time of fall. If correct, it allows an easy calculation of the velocity based on a good guess for the apogee and perigee velocities. The way to get an accurate number is to use the fastest-ever and the slowest-ever, and that's 2,407 mi/hr (NASA uses 1.076 km/sec) versus 2,156.4 mi/hr. Subtract the smaller from the larger to get 250.6 as the difference.

Then, divide the time of 853,339 seconds found above from apogee to the eclipse by the time (1,030,440 seconds) between apogee and perigee. The difference is .82813. The velocity at the eclipse should therefore have been close to .82813 x 250.6 = 207.5 more than 2,156.4, = 2,363.4 mi/hr.

We now have the velocity and the lunar distance, thanks to the free-fall calculator. We can find the false umbra radius that Fred reports, false because his time for U1 to U3 are false. That time span is 2 hours, 38 min 13 sec = 2.637 hours. Just multiply the latter by 2,363.4 mi/hr to find a false umbra diameter of 6,232 miles. It's false, but we just want to show where the umbra line meets the solar-size line with this data.

Fred's velocity can be derived from his U1-U2 time span of 57.50 minutes; divide it by 60 to get .95833 hour, and divide 2,160 miles (or 2,159, if you wish), the lunar diameter, by .95833 to find 2,254 mi/hr, well below the expected 2,363.4. In fact, 2,254 is even less than the lunar speed, according to NASA, of the moon at its average distance, and here the moon is much closer than its average distance. Three out of three central-path eclipses, that I have seen and examined from NASA, has the moon more than 100 miles per hour slower than it should be.

This 1953 eclipse is the most central of the three. It's gamma figure is given as .0071, meaning that the moon's core was .0071 of an earth radius from the center of the umbra, at mid-eclipse. That's 3,959 x .0071 = 28 miles. It's almost bang-on dead center, just like the bullet between Fred's eyes. Fred has committed suicide. And NASA wants him to take the blame for this. But, then, what do others at NASA say when they are not hiding behind the Freds of the world? What say others at NASA for the size of the umbra for the 1953 eclipse?

According to Fred's data, the umbra was 2,254 mi/hr x 2.637 hours = 5,943.8 miles wide (because his U1-U3 time is 2 hours, 38 minutes, 13 seconds = 2.637 hours), smaller that the umbra of the July-2000 eclipse even though the moon was further away, into a thinner region of the umbra, in July of 2000. One can show that the math above is correct where Fred has the umbra radius falsely entered as .7496 degree along with a moon at 16.3433 arc-minutes = .272388 degree. To find the umbra radius in miles, do this: .7496 / .272388 = 2.751956 moons, by which is meant to say 2.751956 lunar diameters of 2,160 miles = 5,944 miles, virtually the 5,943.8 above.

Using a more-correct velocity got an umbra diameter of 6,232 miles. NASA cannot argue against this, meaning that if we press NASA to come clean, it will have the choice of refusing, or of shooting down the 93-million-mile hoax. We have the evolutionists in a trap, if we care to exercise it. With this umbra width, the angle of the umbra line rises 3,959 - 6,232/2 ( or (7,918 - 6,232) / 2 ) = 843 miles across the lunar distance of 233,484 miles. Put these numbers into edge-a and edge b to find the angle at .206867 degree. Clear the calculator and pout the latter into the angel_a box with 1 in edge-b to find a spread of .00361053 mile per mile toward the sun. Next, find the spread of Fred's solar-size line for this eclipse.

He has the sun at 15.75 arc-minutes = .2625 degree. Put the latter in angle-A with 1 in edge-b to find the spread of .00458152, and subtract .00361053 from it to find a difference of .000971. Finally: 3,959 / .000971 = 4.08 million miles as Fred's solar distance. Yes, this is Fred's, using his solar line, his U1 - U3 time span, the approximate lunar distance, and the more-correct lunar velocity. Fred can't argue with this. Take him to court. Get his pages fixed for all central-path eclipses. Let the world know the true solar distance. Toss a sour-berry pie into his face, and don't let NASA off the hook based on Fred's error. NASA demands Fred's error, count on it. All of the evolutionist goons that are privy to the hoax will support Fred. Silence is the best option. Getting Google to keep this page from coming up in a search is another of their options.

Spot Fred's Pattern

Let's go to the central-path lunar eclipse of June 26, 2029. The time from U1 (1:32:18 am) to U2 (2:31:08), which is 58.83 minutes = .9805 hour, gives us the lunar velocity with: 2,160 / .9805 = 2,203 mi/hr. The U1 to U3 (4:13:01) time is 2 hours, 40 minutes, 43 seconds = 2.6786 hours so that the umbra works out to be a false 2.6786 x 2.203 mi/hr = 5,901 miles (Fred always makes the umbra less than 6,000 miles wide for central-path eclipses because he knows that more than 6,000 is anathema to the hoax). His problem is: his velocity figure is too low again. June 26 is nearly 3.5 days after perigee in that year, wherefore the moon will be moving a considerable amount greater than the average speed of 2,289, yet poor dumbo Fred, as if he were oblivious to the error, says that the moon was only moving 2,203 mi/hr. He's once again off by more than 100 mi/hr (I won't bother getting the more-accurate velocity). Fred is bloated with a deceiver infection, and will be judged as surely as there is a Creator who resents what he's doing. It goes deeper than merely giving false eclipse data. God will have the last say against the Freds of the world. NASA is infested with them.

That's four out of four central-path eclipses where Fred round-about gives an obviously-erroneous lunar velocity.

One thing we know: the sun is always at the same, basic distance at a certain day of year. All four central-path eclipses (including the one in 2018) are in June or July. If one had the intelligence and the time, and some fortitude, one might be able to correct Fred's times until all of them give the identical solar distance for any date, say July 1. It would be a monumental task to accomplish this, but I think it can be done. If done, it can reveal how Fred specifically manipulated the times. Perhaps he did the same for each of four eclipses. To begin this task, find the solar distance as per Fred's numbers in combination with the lunar velocities and distances that are obtained from the free-fall calculator. Study the four solar distances, and the four velocity figures that Fred's times give. What do they tell you about how the correction should proceed? One cannot just provide new times at a whim, but must keep to the same pattern for all four eclipses. One must discover what pattern Fred used to enter the false times. If such a pattern exists, then correcting each eclipse entry by undoing the pattern should get the same solar distance in all four cases. It's mainly laborious work, but a sharp mind would help greatly. There is risk that nothing will come of it.

Actually, so long as the free-fall method I'm using to find velocity is correct, one can find the correct span for U1-U2, though not the correct times as yet. One can then compare the spans to Fred's spans in order to spot a pattern. U3-U4 will have almost an identical time span to that of U1-U2. My bet is that Fred does not alter the time for mid-eclipse, as this would be recorded in local areas / observatories. One should proceed on the premise that the time span between U2 and mid-eclipse will either be shorter than Fred has it, or identical to it, but never longer. It would have been safer for him to keep the U2 to mid-eclipse time correct. It may therefore be as simple as Fred adding a few minutes to U1 (i.e. moving the real time a few minutes back) and U4 (adding a few minutes to the correct time). The questions will be: how many minutes does he add in each case, and why? Is there a pattern or rule in what he adds?

If he has the time between U2 and U3 correct (unchanged from the reality), then let's look at the two eclipses in this chapter so far. The one of July 26, 1953, had a solar distance of 3.355 million, and the eclipse of June 26, 2029, had a distance of 4.08 million. The sun is always further on June 26 than on July 26, and the two numbers above do reflect it. However, the two numbers are too far apart for merely being one month apart. Dividing 3.355 by 4.08 is only .822 of a difference, whereas dividing the smallest solar size by the largest is .96 (meaning that the difference for only one month should be higher than .96). Clue: it appears that Fred does not enter the correct U2 times. Has he modified U1 and U2 equally, or one more than the other?

The Taylard Surname

This started out as a response to an email, but became cohesive enough to some of the basic revelations that cropped up in a years-long heraldry investigation (of mine) that I thought to make a chapter out of it for all readers. In the meantime, Marc, the sender of the email, wouldn't mind because the response begins by seeking to understand the root of Taylards, the surname of his mother. Marc had sent in several pictures of Taylard Arms to help me explain the roots of the surname. The main one showed a triple-red chevron on white (or silver) Shield, a so-called label, and a single fleur-de-lys, though Marc pointed out that a single red-on-white chevron was Taylard-important too. All can use the map here on a separate browser to better follow parts of this work:

Hi Marc:

I can see all sorts of connection of Taylards back to John de Burgo, ruler of Conteville and Comyns. John's son, Herluin de Conteville, was the ancestor of rulers in Chester and other parts of Cheshire, including the first and third rulers, Hugh Lupus and his nephew, Ranulph le Meschin. Although no one else I've read claims it, Ranulph was a Massey / Masci liner, and fortunately someone with a Massey surname emailed me one day to inform me that Masseys of Ferte-Mace had married Bellamys. I've come to discover much about Massey liners. not just because my mother is one, but because they are at the root of the code, FreeMASONry." The Mason surname, that is, stems from king Massena of Numidia, and is related to that Masseys. You will find that the tribe to which Massena belonged had a Massey-like name. These were Amazons of Africa (depicted in myth by queen Myrina of the Atlas mountains, home of Numidians), and included the Shaws as a chief element in heraldry whom had early homes in Scotland's Perthshire and Ayrshire. Amazons had named Mazaca in Cappadocia, to the north of Cilicia, and were called Amazhigen or Mazices/Mazikes in Africa. They were probably the major root of Berbers.

After Mr. Massey wrote to me to inform of the Bellamy merger with Masseys of Ferte-Mace (Normandy), I discovered that Bellamys were from Perche (east of Normandy), and I think you've nailed it on the head to link the triple red chevron to Perche (France) because a double red-on-white chevron is used by the Perche surname, which I assume you know (otherwise you wouldn't have made the link). But there is another good reason for linking the Taylard chevrons to Bellamys of Perche.

There is a green symbol in the Taylard Arms that you called a banner, though it's heraldically called a "label," what I say was code for the Label/La Bel surname, no doubt a branch of the Bell surname that itself shares a gold-on-blue fesse with the Bellamy surname (first found in the same place as Meschins, and directly beside Cheshire). The Label crescents are likely those of French Conte's, for both surnames were first found in southern France. I think that part of the Taylard Arms has been solved with this, with further evidence to follow. The Taylard label is of three points, but I don't know what this means as opposed to four or five points that some labels have.

The Taylard flory cross is called "COUNTERchanged" (when the item is split into two colors on opposite sides), and this was found (by me) as code partly for the Counter surname that lists "Conte," which can thus be deciphered as a branch of Conteville's. A double-code term such as "counterCHANGed" suggests that two important surnames of identical/similar spelling had become merged so as to warrant the code's use in the heraldry of their descendants. The symbol can then become widespread as one family transfers it to any child or spouse that wishes to use it. No one else was permitted to use it.

There is a Changer/Chaynger surname using three horizontal bars in colors reversed from the one horizontal bar (= fesse as code for the Fessy surname) of Bellamys. Changers/Chayngers, who look like a branch of Cheneys / Chaine's/Chenays, were first found in Hampshire, where the Taylard kin of Chapells were living early, but also where some Perche kin were living early as Botters. The latter are not using a eagle "standing on a PERCH" for no reason. In fact, as you will see, the Chapells will trace to Buttons, whom I assume were a branch of Botters because both were first found in Hampshire. You can verify that the perch term is used at this website describing heraldic symbols:

It just so happens that the Chaine/Chenay surname once showed (from the same white wing design as Italian Masci's, though both designs have since been changed. Chenays had become suspect with Caens and similar surname from the Ceno river, very close to the Trebia river. When Hannibal (king of Carthaginians = Tyrians / Phoenicians), who was once in league with king Massena, first invaded Italy (218 BC), it occurred on the Trebia along with the Numidian cavalry. Later, Massena abandoned Carthaginians in a betrayal, and went over to the Roman general, Scipio, the one who lost the battle of Trebia to Hannibal. It set up the conditions favorable for a Massena-family settlement along the Trebia, and, the point is, also on the Ceno.

The Changer surname is said to be from a "CHAUN" term, and there is a Caun surname listed with Conns/CONE's, which appears to be just another Conte branch because Counters/Conte's/Counts and the other Cone's/Couns/Coons share three antlers as their primary symbol shown. Note that the Caun/Cone Coat (and Cony Coat) is a reflection of the Meschin Coat, and using fesse-lets on either side of the fesse, a Bellamy design too. The Caun and Meschin Coats compare also with the Herl/Hurl Coat, suspect from HERLuin de Conteville, and the Scottish Hurls/Heraults/Herods share the hawk's lure with the Cheshire surname. It just so happens that there is an Herault area smack beside Roussillon. You will see the antler used also by the founder (or near-founder) of the Cheshire Masci's, Hamon de Masci.

The reason for stressing Meschins / Masci's is that Ranulph le Meschin married Lucy Taillebois, a surname that can easily have been of the Tail/Taylor/Tailer surnames. I can thus track Taylards, with confidence, as far back as the descendants of Severus Bassus (Galatia) in the time of Jesus. His descendants came to rule Jerusalem in 102 AD, and may been the reason for the invasion of Jerusalem by the Normans in 1096. That is, the Normans are expected to trace back to Bassus. Rollo first conquered what was called Normandy after his Norman heritage, and the treaty (912 AD) he signed with the king of France was called after Claro, the surname that became the Sinclairs. The latter use a "Commit" motto term as code for the Conteville bloodline, for the Counters/Conte's are also COMITissa's while another Conte surname shows a COMITes variation. Rollo's empire was enlarged greatly by William the Conqueror, whose mother marred the Herluin de Conteville under discussion. All of heraldry was devised by the Crusader- / Templar-related peoples -- the Normans and the French at Artois and neighboring Flanders -- and it essentially became a tracking system for high-level kinships, and includes clues (once you are familiar with enough of heraldry) that can track the entirety to the line of Severus Bassus.

Severus Bassus was the ancestor of rulers in Cetis, Cilicia. His grandson, Quadratus Bassus, that is, had a daughter (Quadratus) who married the Herod-Maccabee family that had rulership over Cetis. The Cetis area had a priestly cult by the name of Kennati, which became the Kennedy surname that shares the single red-on-white chevron with the earls of Carrick. This is the chevron that you are inquiring about as used by Taylards (and a host of others, of course), and so you would be interested to know that the Carrick surname calls its dog, a talbot, as code for the Talbot surname, first found in the same place as Meschins and Bellamys.

Kennedys were first found in Ayrshire, where Carricks were first found who descended from Marjorie Carrick, wife of the first Bruce king of Scotland, the one who took the persecuted Templars of France into his shade. By this time (early 14th century), the Sinclairs were living with obscene amounts of money at Roslin (Midlothian), near the first Keiths (East Lothian) that I see descended from "Cetis" or "Cetina." I don't think it's a coincidence that Tails/Tailers share the leopard with Keatons while the Keaton leopard heads are colors reversed from the Tailer lions. You'll see shortly why I trace Tail liners to the CETINa river, what could have named KEATONs/Kittens (descended from a Keton). The Keats even use cats in vertical form, the form of the Tailer lions, and in the colors of the Keaton leopards. What was this Tailer link to Kett-like surnames?

The Sinclairs built a church at Roslin studded with pagan themes on its building materials, and can be viewed as a chief root of Rosicrucians along with the Rhodes', the latter first found in the same place as Ivo and Lucy Taillebois (father and daughter). I trace the namers of Roslin to Roussillon/Rosellon, home of France's Redones, i.e. the proto-Rus and therefore the ancestors of the Varangian Rus. Chances are, the Rollo Normans were at least partly Varangian Rus. The Bouillons, which use the Taylard flory cross, were first found near Rodez. It should be noted that while Taylards use the flory in both red and white, the Tailbois' use a saltire cross in those colors.

However, I don't have general evidence that Tail liners originated out of France. I can only make a strong Taillebois link to Redones and Meschin liners. The Redones were also called RUTHene and Russi, and so it's interesting that a single white-on-red chevron (colors expected from the Redones) is used by a Ruth/Rother surname listed with Moray's Randolphs. The latter are probably using a version of the Rhodes cross, and the Rhodes cross is probably a red version of the black Sinclair cross. There is another leopard in the Rhodes Crest, and the Rhodes cross is in both colors of the Tailbois saltire, suggesting that Rhodes' were married to Tailers and/or that Taillebois' were themselves Tailers. Ruths/Rothers and Hamon(d)s both use three black stars surrounding an ermined chevron. The Hamon(d) surname can be linked by its "rimini" term, buried in its motto, to the Maschi's of Rimini. The Maschi pine CONE is part code for Pine's/Pyne's, feasibly a branch of Payens, and then Payens list "Pean" while the Hamon(d) ermines (the on-Shield pattern), because they are gold on black, are officially called, "pean." Hugh de Payens was the first grandmaster of the Templars, and after his many-years stay at Jerusalem, he visited the Sinclairs at Roslin. Some say he married Catherine Sinclair.

What do you think the BESANts are doing inside the Rhodes cross? They are a symbol of the Bassus > Bassianus bloodline, and because Julius Bassianus was a high priest of a sun god, it can explain the sun at the top of the Hamon(d) chevron.

Somehow, the Bassus bloodline was wrapped up with Redones, and I happened to stumble over the historical fact that the Galatian tribe to which Severus Bassus belonged had originated in Gauls of France i.e. living in and around the land of Redones. One might even expect that Galatians would go back to France, but then there is this curiosity that "Herod" might itself have arisen from "Rhodes / Rodez," for the daughter of Quadratus Bassus did marry a chief Herod line, the last Herod line of elite importance.

I had conjectured with some logic that the Moray Randolphs were named after Ranulph le Meschin, which explained the Mackays at Moray, especially as German Rothers share the raven with Mackie's/Margys, the latter first found in the same place (Ayrshire) as Talbot-loving Carricks. Thomas Randolph, the first earl of Moray, was a son of Marjory Carrick with her first husband (Adam Kilconquhar), who was himself a Crusader. Thomas Randolph's Arms are shown at his Wikipedia article with a stag in Crest, a symbol that you will see traced, later, exactly to Eustace II, father of Godfrey de Bouillon and his brother, Baldwin, the first Templar king of Jerusalem. The Keiths use the stag in Crest too. It can start to indicate that Eustace was descended from Cetis / Cetina elements.

Indeed, the Eustace Coat shares the same type cross, both in red, as Haddingtons, and the first Keiths lived in Haddington. The "me" motto term of Eustace's has been found as code for Mea's/Meighs, who use the same type cross in colors reversed to that of Haddingtons. The Eustace cross is in both colors of the same of Irish Burghs, known for a fact to be from John de Burgo i.e. father of Herluin de Conteville. Note in the Haddington write-up that there was an alternative Haddington location in Lincolnshire, i.e. home of the Rhodes' and of Ivo Taillebois. The write-up of the Stacey surname says that it's a version of "Eustace," and as the Stagg surname shares the stag with the Eustace's and Staceys (both use the same motto), it becomes evident that stags are code for the Eustace > Stacey > Stagg bloodline. The Staceys use the Eustace cross in the form of a saltire, and it's red, the color of the Taillebois saltire.

The "PERSEqueris" motto term of Eustace's and Staceys can suggest the Perse surname in part, which is a variation of the Pierce/PEERCE surname, like "Perche." The Piece's and Percivals were first found in the same place (beside the perch-using Botters) as Leavells/Lovells (known to descend from a Mr. Perceval), and the latter were traced strongly to the surname of Lupus Laevillus, husband of Quadratilla Bassus, daughter of Quadratus above.

I was finally able to trace the Bassus' of Cetis confidently to Julius Bassianus (less than a century later), whose daughter was Julia Maesa, the ancestress, I think, of Masseys and Meschins. Julia's sister, Julia Domna, was wife to a Roman emperor, CARACalla by "nickname," whom I say was part of the family that put out "CARRICK." Caracalla stationed Julius Bassianus in Dalmatia, where there was a Maezaei peoples upon, or at least near, a TILURius river. This is where I trace the Tiller/Tylor surname without doubt, which shares white-on-black passant lions with the Tails/TAILERs. Moreover, the gold fesse of Tillers (compare with Cauns/Cone's because Tile's/Tilleys were from the Caen area), along with the three red crescents upon it, look borrowed from the Bellamy Coat, or vice-versa. A Bassus-of-CETis connection to Bassianus' on the Tilurius can explain why this river's alternative name was the CETina. Now you know why I had to come the long route, through Massey liners, to explain the backdrop of Taylards.

Tillers are feasibly part of this statement from you: "The Dutch name Telders came from Telder and Teller. Also sometimes in the archives spelled as Tailler, Tayler, Teyler en Talyarde. There was a Johan Talyarde (Son of Jan Teller (John Tailler)..." German Tile's/Tillers/Thillers share the arrow with German Dellers, as well as sharing annulets with German Sellers. This Teller-Seller possibility is very interesting for connecting "TILURius" to the dark-skinned SILURians of Wales, for while the Shaws, whom I trace to Shawia Numidians, use cups, that's the symbol of Scottish Sellers (first found in Aberdeenshire, same as Cauns/Cone's). It had struck me that the Maezaei peoples had been from the Massena that Numidians (i.e. dark-skinned whites) on the Tilurius can thus be the origin of Silurians.

Scottish Sellers/Sillers use a Coat that I've been proclaiming as a version of the Coat of Welsh Tudors, and Tudors have long been suspect as Taddei's because the latter share a red triple chevron with the Arms of Cardiff, the Welsh capital in southern Wales. The red Taylard triple chevron can thus link there, especially as Strongbow Clare ruled from Pembroke, in southern Wales (as you must know, the Clare's use the red triple chevron). The Tudors happen to share three helmets with the Mynetts (i.e. suspect with Massey liners), and Meschins were in Cheshire (Welsh-English border) specifically to check the Welsh on behalf of the Claro>Sinclair bloodline. So, I would suggest that the Taylard chevron(s) are linkable to both Strongbow Clare and to the one in colors reversed from the Taylard chevron, that of Sellers/Sillers. As Strongbow was a ruler in Pembroke, compare the Pembroke surname's Coat to that of Italian Mazzo's/Mazzoli's/Mazzone's.

It just so happens that Tillers/Tylors, the ones using a version of the Caun/Cone Coat, were first found in Glamorgan and Monmouthshire, south Wales. Moreover, as I trace the Keiths to the Cetina = Tilurius, note that Keith lived near MUSSELburgh (in Haddington), for Mussels/Muscels (like the Masculine variation of Meschins) likewise use a version of the Caun / Tiller / Meschin Coat. English Tile's/Tilley's are said to be from a Tilley location "near Caen," and from HAYMON de Tellia. Caen is itself in the area of Normandy where Ranulph le Meschin's father grew up, and it seems evident here that Caens/Canns were a branch of Cauns/Cone's = Conte liners.

This is a good place to mention, in case you doubt a Massey trace to Numidians, that Masons/Massins, first found in the same place as Hamon(d) and Mynetts, are said to have been first found in THANET (Kent), while the Shawia Numidians are said to have lived in ZANATA (north Africa).

Julia's Maesa surname is suspect with the Maezaei peoples (she could have married a Mr. Maesa of the Tilurius-river area in order to get that surname). Julia Maesa is known to have married Julius Avitus, and his surname is suspect with the Avis/Avison surname that I see in the Kennedy motto, "Avise la fin." The Avis/Avison Arms is identical with the Comyn Coat, you see, both using the gold-on-blue Arms of Cheshire garbs (i.e. that Ranulph le Meschin would have owned). Besides, Marjorie Carrick's husband, Adam Kilconquhar, had a Miss/Mrs. Comyn for a mother. So, you see, from Caracalla to Marjorie Carrick, a line(s) of Julius Avitus went along to the Carrick-related Kennedys (they use a helmet too), but it can also go well to the Vito surname that shares annulets with the VisCONTI's and Tile's/Tilleys. In case it has slipped your mind, Conteville's ruled a Comyns location, and while there is a Comines in Artois, the Comyn-surname page points out another one in central Wales very near Cheshire and Shropshire (where Talbots, Meschins and Bellamys were first found).

I know for a fact that mottoes are usually code for kin. As per the Kennedy motto phrase, "la fin," I found that a Lafin/La Font surname shares a black-on-white upright lion with the Italian Conte surname. One can even see that KENNED and CONT are similar enough, suggesting that Conteville's may have been from the Kennati priesthood around Cetis. After all, Caen is in the BESSIN, an apt term for a BASSIANus bloodline. In this picture, Caen was named after a Bassus line from the Kennati priests. By what coincidence was Severus Bassus a grandson of AMYNTes while Mynetts share the helmet with Irish Kennedys? Why do Pembroke-related Mazzo's come from MazzaCANE's and MazzaGALLI's? Both the Pembroke and Mazzo bends are a good reflection of the Cheney bend.

The Lafin surname is said to have been first found in Tipperary, where Irish Kennedys were first found (Tippers share the dolphin with Scottish Kennedys probably due to Tipperary-Kennedy connections). By the time I had discovered the Lafin variation of La Fonts, I had realized that the Ville surname, first found in the same place as French Conte's, were listed with Font de Ville's...and thus these two families, merged in marriage, created "ConteVILLE." They were first found in Languedoc, which included at least a part of Dauphine, an area that used the dolphin in its Arms as play on words. So, Kennedys look like they evolve from something in both Languedoc and Dauphine, and while Mynett-related Hamon(d)'s (sun) use "pean" as code for Payens/Peans, the latter was first found in Dauphine. It can indicate that the Kennati line to Scotland / Ireland had been in Dauphine and/or Languedoc, and while SEPTimania was part of Languedoc, Julia Bassianus Maesa's sister (Julia Bassianus Domna) married the son of emperor SEPTimius SEVERUS (i.e. may have been a Severus-Bassus cousin).

So, what happened is that some family in relation with the Kennati priests had merged with the Bassus > Bassianus line (Julius Bassianus was a chief priest of an el-Gabal cult in Syria, but that cult had an altar in Woerden of the Netherlands), and moved it over to Dalmatia. Taylard cousins such as Talls / TALbots can figure large right in the naming of "DALmatia," creating a Tilurius-versus-Dalmatia question as to their specific origins (the Tilurius was in Dalmatia). It's interesting that Sellers/Sillers share the swan with DALE's.

I say that the Bassianus family in Dalmatia contacted the Saraca family from Laus (otherwise called, Ragusa), also in Dalmatia. Wikipedia's article on the Saraka's shows their symbol as a fish, a possible take (i.e. a bass fish) from the Bass/Bassen surname, which happens to share the red-on-white chevron with the Carricks and Kennedys. Note that Bass'/Bassens throw in a greyhound, symbol of the Lys/Lisse surname that I trace to the same entity as "Laus." The upright / vertical fish, used by Lucys, and once by Geddes' (a term like "Cetis"), evolved, in my strong opinion, into the fleur-de-lys, named after the broad entity that named Laus at Ragusa, and a second Laus beside SARACena of Calabria. I expect "Saraca" as a soft form of whatever named Caracalla (they say it was his robe but I'm not convinced). Saracena is all around areas in both Calabria and Lucania (includes a POTENTia location) that use the so-called potent cross in their Arms, the symbol of Templar Jerusalem as used by Godfrey de Bouillon's family. The potent is much like the flory cross of Bouillons.

They say that the potent cross developed from the crutch symbol, but this looks like indication as code for a Crutch/Crouch/Crooch surname, which looks like it can be a Carrick / Craig / Crack variation, and reflects the Tailer Coat not bad. In fact, it has just come to mind that the Croce's/Cross' use the potent cross! Also, the Cracks/Crocks/Cricks/Critches are actually using a version of the Crutch/Crouch/Crooch Coat (both use the same three formee-fitchee crosses on a pale bar, and in colors reversed from one another). Therefore, the Saraca bloodline around Saracena was likely there either as the proto-Carricks, or with proto-Carricks, for both were in Sicily. The Croce Shield can easily be the Massey Shield because I trace proto-Carricks to "Acragus," in southern Sicily i.e. facing the proto-Masseys of Numidia. Moreover, the "dum spero" motto phrase of Croce's/Cross' is shared by the Masons/Massins from north Africa's Zanata. We can glean a proto-Massey link to proto-Carricks from way back, but they had both contacted Tal(bot) lines somewhere along the way. We could expect the namers of Dalmatia in southern Italy with this potent line to Carricks.

The Bass greyhounds wear chains, code for the Chains / Chaine's/Chenays, probably a branch of Caens, the latter using a known version (Citis) of "Cetis" as part of their motto. It should not be coincidental, therefore, that Cheneys use "major" in their motto, for the Geddes, having a Cetis like surname, use "majora" in their motto. Here we have a Kennati suspects with Cetis suspects liking in heraldic codework, as well as Kennati suspects linking to the chain of a Bassus-suspect surname. The chain is used also for the Quade / Mackay wolf heads, and Quade's were suspect with "QUADratus," as are QUADRants, which the Taylards and Masseys (and a countless host of others) use. By what coincidence do SAILERS/SAYLORS (i.e. like Tailers/Taylors) and Seals use the three black-on-white wolf heads of Quade's and Irish Mackays? Note that the Seal Crest uses the wolf head in white, which we'll see shortly again in a trace to the Trebia river, i.e. beside the Ceno to which I trace Cheney liners.

I've just checked Teals because Seals are proving to be Tilurius liners, and Teals share the black wyvern dragon of Tile's/Tilleys (from near Caen). The latter share the axe with Drake's. There is a duck term in the Teal write-up, as there is in the Drake write-up. Teals can be a branch of the Tealer variation of Tellers/Talers (tall perchevron). Drake's trace to the Drago river at Acragus without doubt. Note the ending on AcRAGUS, like "Ragusa." It appears that the Bassianus-bloodline member met up with Saracens out of Sicily's Ragusa (south-east end), near SYRACuse, who named Dalmatia's Ragusa (where Saraca's came to live after Kotor). Wikipedia says that Acragus (also called Agrigento) was founded by peoples from Gela, near Syracuse.

The fleur-de-lys in the Teal Chief are expected along with the greyhound in the Teal Crest, for the Dragon/Drainer surname (which the Teal dragon honors) was traced without doubt to the Drin river, anciently the Drilon, the one that flows to Lissus, the origin of the Lys/Lisse surname (fleur-de-lys and greyhounds) for which the fleur-de-lys was named. The proto-Italian PENEStae peoples (came to live in Oscan territories) lived on the Drilon, and the PENES/Penny surname uses more greyhounds (this is the Pendragon entity of King-Arthur myth). You can read that Tattons were merged with Masseys, noting that the Tatton Crest has the seated white greyhound of the Teal Crest (just another Massey-line link to Tilurius liners). The Tatton who married a Massy was from KENworthy.

It's important that the three white helmets of Dragons/Drainers are OPEN, for the description of the Mynetts calls their's "black helmets, open." The Dragon/Drainer helmets are in colors reversed from the Mynett helmets. There is a white and open helmet also in the Pendragon Crest to prove what I'm saying of a Drin-river origin of Pendragons (Dragon/Drainer colors), and as I've longed traced the Pendragon fleur-de-lys to those of Sale's/Salletts, it would appear that Sale's were likewise Seal / Sailer = Tilurius suspects. The Mr. Massey who alerted me to the Bellamy-Massey marriage also told of a Sale-of-Mascy surname.

Previous to finding hint of the Bassus' at the Tilurius, I had been looking for the reason that Quadratus named his daughter, QuadraTILLA. I was looking for a Till entity. Her name thus became suspect with a family that was out of the Tilurius, or vice-versa. As Julius Avitus can be expected with family on the Tilurius, by what coincidence is the Vito annulet colors reversed from the two of German Tile's/Tillers/Thillers?

Now take a look at the Bass/Bassen surname, the three black-on-white greyhounds with chains, so comparable to the three wolf heads of Quade's, Saylors and Seals. Bass's/Bassens are said to be from Bass in Aberdeenshire and/or Bass Isle in Haddington. There is a good chance that the Taylard chevron was earlier the Bass/Bassen chevron. The other English Bass' are said to be first found in Haddingtonshire, where Keiths were first found. I can repeat that Keats use cats, and Keatons use leopards, the symbol of the Tailer Crest, because the so-called mountain cat in the Chives Crest is the leopard of the Mosca's, the latter a family that had been near ACRAGas (now Agrigento) in southern Sicily. I traced the CRAIG ancestors of Carricks to the name of that place. The river through Acragas was the Drago, explaining why a variation of the Mosca's is in the Drake motto. You can pretty-much bank on the Tailer leopard being that of Chives'.

I don't think it's coincidental that the Chives' are said to have had a branch at Tarves -- in Aberdeenshire, where Bass'/Bassens were -- while a Cavii peoples lived on a Mathis river (source near the Penestae) having a mouth at ancient BASSANia. In fact, the mouth of the Mathis is very near the mouth of the Drin/Drilon, and Lissus was at the mouth of the Drin. In other words, Bassania and Lissus are very near to one another, indicating round-about that the Chives' were Cavii descendants in Aberdeenshire. If not thoroughly convinced, see that the French Mathis surname uses the Chives cross (both have a single gold star at its center).

To help prove that Mosca's were Massey liners, the Tattons-of-Massey share the English-Tute crescent while Chives' use a "VirTUTE" motto code, and Irish Tute's/Tutts are probably sharing the Tatton quadrants for the obvious reason. The write-up of Irish Tute's suggests strongly that they were part of the Tosni's, known to descend from Malahule of More (Norway), the ancestor of the Bessin's rulers who birthed Meschins. Rollo's use a "tute" motto term, and Malahule was king Rollo's uncle. Rollo's Sinclair family came to live beside Haddington.

The French Talbots that share the Masci symbol are said to have descended from the bishop of LISIeux (west side of Normandy). This first Taleboth (on record) was the son of a count of Exmes, that being the area to the south of the Bessin, right beside Caen. The first Talbot liner mentioned was a Hugh, the name also of the founder(s) of the Tosni's/Tonys. Reading further, it says that French Talbots were close to Gournays (use the counterchanged feature), which tends to explain why Ranulph le Meschin's son was surnamed, Gernon. That is, having married Taillebois, Ranulph's wife decided on the Gournay bloodline for her son's surname. The Gernons share two lions in pale (vertical direction, same as Tailer lions) in the colors of the same of Base's. These lions are used in the Arms of Brunswick, and can suggest Masci elements with the Bruno's, first found in the same place as Taddei's. Bruno's happen to use a bend alone, in colors reversed from the French-Talbot bend. Gournays show nothing but pale bars, and Pale's use the same bend as Talbots along with upright red lions, the symbol of English Talbots.

"HADDington" is suspect with the same that named Chads, Saddocks, Chadwicks, Chaddocks, Skits, Skeets', and Scheds (four of them use the potent cross), and to this tune the other English Bass' (Haddingtonshire) share the Saddock Shield, called an eSCUTcheon as part-code for the Schutz/Shutz surname that itself shares the black greyhound head, with gold collar, with the Bass'/Bassens. The other Bass' use a black-on-white escutcheon, colors reversed from the Saddock/Sedgewick escutcheon. The Schutz saltire has been traced, at least tentatively, to the same of Salways/Solways; the latter's Negro can indicate the dark-skinned Silures.

This Cetis circle of families is the basis of all Freemasonry. Wherever there is heraldry, it will trace to some aspect of the Sadducees and Herod-Maccabees of Cetis-related families. The German Bute/Butt surname is probably sharing the Saraca fish on a fesse, and its Boet variation is suspect with the Boetus house of Sadducees. Compare the Boet Coat to that of HEDERicks/Hatters, for Biblical Sadducees ruled in Jerusalem's political establishment called the SanHEDRin. I hold to this very lightly, however. As Chads use the potent cross, we can expect them to link to Saracena / Saraca elements, but let's not forget that the official emblem of Templar Jerusalem was the potent cross. The Kotor location of the Saraca's was beside a Butua (now Budva), which can be the origin of Bute's/Butts/Boets. But what am I saying, that Sadducees had links to Butua elements that came to be a house of Boetus in Israel? It seems so bizarre.

Sadducees may have been named after the entity that named Cetis. The fish-using Geddes even use the same escutcheon as Chaddocks and Chadwicks, and there is a Cetis surname using an escutcheon too. The Geddes / Chaddock escutcheon is in the colors of the same of the Talbot and Scott (like "Schutz") surnames. Talbots are said to be of BASHall, and there is a Bashall surname using nothing but black roundels, which can be seen on the Tiller/Tylor lions. Between the Tilurius river and Bassania, there is a lake SCODra, not far from Kotor and Butua.

The suspicion is that Sadducees were of the Kennati priesthood, and plucked out by Romans for investment in Israel's pacification (under Roman rule). That is, the Sadducees had been pagans, but bribed / compelled by Romans to adopt a religion palatable to the Jews. The escutCHEON is part code for Keens (use an escutcheon) and Keons, probably branches of Caens / Chaine's. Cane's and Kane's use the fish alone. It's known that Sadducees arose from the Maccabees, but other than that, its a fog. The Bassus-Maccabee rulers of Cetis were willing Roman puppets, and in 102 AD got to rule over Jerusalem on Rome's behalf, a generation after Sadducees proper were forced to flee the city.

The Bassus connection to Julius Bassianus, though only suspect in the beginning, was confirmed to a large degree in my mind by an Olba location near Cetis that was also called, ORBa. The first I found Olba was on a coin of Caracalla, but by then I had known that the Maezaei were on an URBanus river, and that the Urban surname shares a version of the Massena Coat (itself a version of the Masci Coat). Thus, the namers of the Urbanus were found related to the namers of Orba, and I can trace the so-called ORB of the Metz surname (married Pepin of Landen = chief Merovingian line) to this Orba / Urbanus line. The Metz surname can trace with Mathis' to the Mathis river, and as Bassania is at that river, look at all the besants in the Metz Coat. Metz is off the Moselle river that may have named Musselburgh of Haddington. Note that the Metz orb is itself a giant besant, code, likely, for the sun god of Julius Bassianus. Up the Drilon river of the Cavii, there was a GABULeum location while Bassianus' sun god was Gabal.

My theory has long been that Caiaphas, killer of Jesus, was named as per a line from the Cavii. For this theory, I trace Cavii to the namers of Ceva (northern Italy not far from the Trebia), and from Ceva it goes to the Arundel-branch FitzAlans, for they married Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Luisa of Ceva. The Arundels were a branch of Rundells/Roundels (probably use the Alan Coat), and besants are roundels, as are the so-called plate's used by Mussels/Muscels. The theory goes further in that Carthaginians and Numidians in the Trebia river theater, with the king-Massena line at the charge, were stationed in the Roman Levant (includes Israel) as a means to conquer it, and that Ananus/Annas/Hanan, Caiaphas' father-in-law, was a relative (perhaps distant) of Hannibal, and named after the Ananes Gauls at Placentia, a major city now that was built (as a known fact) off the Trebia by none other general Scipio immediately after he lost the battle to Hannibal. The saltire and chief of the Tailboys Coat is that also of Annandale, and there is good evidence in the location of the first Rome/Room surname (same place as Annandale) that Annandale was named from the Ananes Gauls. The "placit" motto term of Rome's/Rooms suggest Placentia elements. A thousand years ago, they knew these traces, since lost but reflected by heraldry.

The Maccabees of Israel are not known until a generation after Massena, and by some coincidence or not, the Modi'in location of Maccabees in Israel is spelled like the Modena location in northern Italy that Hannibal conquered. Modena was invaded at the same time by the Boii, whom some say named the Bessin, but, in any case, the Boii can explain MaccaBAEUS, the original named of Maccabees. I was convinced by other matters that the Boii were indeed part of Maccabee make-up, and this is where the TailBOIS/TailBOYS' may come in. Godfrey de BOUIllon's father was of Boulogne (Artois), and the Boii had their station mainly in Bologna (beside Modena). Both cities had the alternative name of Bononia. The Jews claim that "maccabaeus" means "hammer," but this must not be the original meaning. The Macie's happen to use a mace symbol.

The north side of the Mathis (now the Mat) was occupied by a Cavii peoples, and the south by a Taulantii peoples suspect with the Tail bloodline. German Talls/Thals share the bee symbol with Bessins, a good fact by which to trace Talls to Taulantii, for the Bessin traces to Bassania. I wasn't able to make a hard link between the Taulantii and the namers of the Tilurius. The Talbots share bends (diagonal bars) in the colors of the Tall/Thall bend, and one Scott Coat uses the same-colored bend that, for me, traces Talbots to the origin of the Scott surname at lake Scodra. The Massena and Tall bends look like a match with that of Urbans. The Massena patees (crosses) are in Massey/Macie colors, and the Masci's once showed two wings in the same colors and positions.

As Meschins originated in the Bessin, it can seem as though the Bassianus-Maesa family named Bassania, or vice-versa, and got involved with some Taulantii. Ferte-Mace is not far from the southern border of the Bessin, and Masseys/Macie's are said to be first found to the immediate west of the Bessen. Le-Meschin's brother, fresh out of the Bessin, married SKIPton (Yorkshire), the line of general SCIPio, right? I envision a close relationship between the Massena-Scipio families for over 1,000 years to the Bessin, home of a BAIOcasses peoples.

In Marc's second email, there was this: "I also wonder if there is a relationship with the more Latin and Normandic French variations Telarius or Talliator." It's an apt surname of someone from the Tilurius. And one sentence earlier, he said: "Interestingly, I have found an Amicia Taillard (of Gharlbury) circa 1258 from Tetsworth, Oxfordshire, UK who was the wife of (Knight) Richard TaleMASCHE (died Oxford Castle, 1245?-1307?)."" Capitals mine. Amicia sure sounds Italian.

The fleur-de-lys is said to be from king Childeric and/or his son, Clovis, the first Merovingian kings that may have been ancestors to Pepin of Landen (Belgium, near the Lys river). As Childeric's tomb was found with many gold bees, I realized that his wife, Basina, was of the Bassianus bloodline to the namers of the Bessin. Talls/Thals were first found in Thuringia, where Basina had her home. As Scottish Turins/Thurins were first found in the same area (Aberdeenshire) as a branch of Chives', it's a good bet that Chives' named Chivasso at Turin. The latter two locations are near the Bautica river that has the other Lys river as a tributary. Turin (or Torino) uses a bull for a symbol, and Merovingians claimed to be from a QUINOtaur (mythical bull) symbol.

The Masci's, first found in Piedmont, location of Turin, use the fleur-de-lys in the colors of the same of France, and the Lys/Lisse surname uses fleur-de-lys in the white-on-red colors used also by Masseys. The fleur-de-lys of France are to be traced to Childeric, we may presume, but in case you're missing it, the Basina trace to Bassania is also to neighboring Lissus. It seems a shut-case scenario that the Merovingian Franks had part-origins at the Mathis and Drilon river mouths, and while we saw that some Tiller/Teller-like surnames modified to S-terms, let's add that Childeric's line is known to have married the Salian Franks, and that Sellers share a white-on-red chevron with Child's (i.e. like "CHILDeric"), both surnames using three white symbols surrounding the chevron.

Child's are said to be from Wanstead, and there is a Wanstead surname (Child colors) with two fleur-de-lys, one of them in the colors of the Lys / Massey fleur. The Waner/Weynen variations immediately bring the Massey-related Fane's/Vans/Veynes' to mind, first found in Monmouthshire i.e. where we expect Sellers and Tudors that use Coats like the Child's. I trace the Fane's/Vans to Vannes, a location in Brittany that was home to Veneti, and then Merovingians traced themselves to Italy's Veneti. Fane's/Veynes' and Wayne's share the GAUNTlet glove with Macie's, and then Gaunt is at the end of the Lys river of Flanders. That's why you can toss the Wanstead write-up, where they trace to basket sellers, to the garbage heap, where I toss most heraldic derivations.

See in the Wanstead page how the two sides of the fleur are fashioned like dolphin heads, for Veynes' can be a branch of "Payen," first found in Dauphine, and possibly tracing by way of the PENEStae peoples to the Peneus river (Greece), beside the Ladon river of mythical Daphne, she having an older dolphin symbol than Dauphine. I routinely trace the Peneus river to Tyrians at Panias (Phoenicia), smack beside an ancient Daphne location, and from there to Lake Van in Armenia (but I won't get into the details here). I have traced Lissus to the Biblical Laish, smack beside Panias and Daphne.

I trace the Paion variation of Payens to the Paioni/Paeoni peoples on the immediate east of the Penestae. One could say that the Paeoni were ancient relatives of the Carthage Tyrians, and Panias elements may have named Pannonia, home of the Boii that came to roost in Modena, as with the Carthaginians. Bologna of the Boii was right beside the Italian Veneti, with Fano (where I trace Fane's/Vans) not far to the south-west. Vannes in Brittany was also called, Gwenea, and this led to the naming of Gwynedd in Wales (or vice-versa), the roost of king-Arthur's red dragon. In short, king Arthur's wife, Guinevere, was code for this Vannes line.

The Wenser variation of Wansteads (share white fleur with Pendragons) brought PENSers to mind, who share the dove with English Page's, a likely branch of the Pagan variation of Payens. The Page's use another Coat like that of Child's, and throw in some so-called pheons. Both Page's and Childs share a white chevron with PENdragons. French Page's were first found in Dauphine. When they say that mythical pendragon birthed king Arthur, it has to do with LUISa of Ceva (trust me on this), who was in code in mythical GorLOIS. Pendragon, in the myth, mated with Gorlois' wife to birth Arthur, but this was code for Ceva elements in Cornwall, which I view as Cavii liners. I've claimed that Pendragons were Merovingians in Britain, or at least the Merovingian bloodline in Vannes.

The Lille location near the French-Belgian Lys river uses a fleur-de-lys in its Arms, suggesting that the fish in Laus was turned into a lily in honor of Lille, for the fleur-de-lys is said to be a lily. Comines is in the arrondissment of Lille. A giant lily is used by the Cetis/Sestius surname, albeit I don't know whether this surname has anything to do with Cilicia's Cetis. The central part of the fleur-de-lys still looks like a fish, especially when the bottom part of the fleur is curled on both sides like a fish tail. The Talbot surname (first found in the same place as Meschins) is expected from Lucy Taillebois (le-Meschin's wife), and fish-using Lucys/Luce's might just be named after her. Tailboys'/Tailbois' share white scallops with Meschins and Samsons, and these trace to Sicily along with the patee crosses that you say were the Taylard symbol. I'll explain below.

The Tailboys write-up says that Ivo Taillebois (le-Meschin's father-in-law, I think) was "Lord of Holland," which might connect to the Taylards that you seek in Holland.

As Ranulph le Meschin is known to have descended from Malahule of More, Rollo's uncle, it can indicate that the Normans were either descended from Childeric, or met up with his lines in Normandy's Bessin. The Bessin/Beeston and Biston surnames share a black-on-white bend with Sale's (pheon in Crest), the latter being the ones that I say share the Pendragon fleur closely. The Rollo surname, first found beside Aberdeenshire, shares the boar head with Turins/Thurins (Aberdeenshire). As Chives' of Aberdeenshire trace to Chivasso at Turin, one can imagine a Bassania-Cavii alliance in the Turin area before reaching Basina in Thuringia, and so some Tall /Tail elements may have been in the Turin area. For example, Saluzzo, named by the Salassi or Salyes Ligures, and suspect with the Sale's. The Talls of Thuringia once showed the same bee design as Bessins, but after mentioning this in my online work, houseofnames changed the bee design of Talls (what need is there in changing merely a bee design without changing the bee's position?). The Chives moline cross is very similar to the flory used by Taylards, and, moreover, the Taylard flory is in the same colors. Sale's and Talbots were first found beside one another, in Cheshire and Shropshire respectively, and the Alans from Luisa of Ceva and Alice of Saluzzo lived in Shropshire. In fact, the FitzAlans that married Saluzzo lived in a Shropshire location of Clun, and the Clun surname (black wolf) shares the Saluzzo Coat exactly, a good reason to trace Sale's to some close relationship with Saluzzo.

The Chives' use a moline cross because it belongs to the Moline surname said to be directly related to Fulbert "the tanner," the father of the Conqueror's mother i.e. who marred Herluin de Conteville. Again and again, Taylards come back to this Burgo-Conteville line.

I can glean the Mosca / Chives leopard in the top quadrant of the English Bessen Coat. Note that the quadrants are in the colors of the Massey quadrants (see also the quadrants of Dutch Mackays, because Irish Mackays use the Quade wolf heads), and that both the Masseys and Bessens use a white symbol in their top quadrant. Compare the Bessen Coat with what I have saved as the Arms of Massey-Dunham. German Bessens/Besants share white wings with Masci's, and the Bessins are said to have had a Beeston location in Cheshire, home of Masseys. It's clear, Meschins of the Bessin and Masci's > Masseys were one bloodline, explaining why a Dunham-Massey location in Cheshire was also Dunham-Masci, where Hamon de Masci/Massey operated.

The second Lys river is in Aosta, and Aosta was founded by the Salassi. This Lys river is a tributary of the Baltea (also called Bautica), which was ancestral to kin of the Bouillons ("bello" motto term can be of the Labels). I actually found how Godfrey de Bouillon's family (specifically Godfrey III) had linked to Taddei's of Florence (probably the origin of "flory" cross), though it was a rough connection, not yet finding the actual marriage. In some of my final work of late, I was able to glean that the Conqueror's family was from elements of Florence, which should explain why Clare's share three red chevrons with Taddei's. I think it was the brother of Ranulph le Meschin who married the Clare's of Tunbridge or Tunbridge Wells (both in Kent).

Your email has one Taylard Arms with what looks like five COMETs on the chevron. There is a Comet surname that looks to be a version of the Comyn Coat, another good reason to view the Conte's/Comitissa's / Comites' surnames as the ones who named Conteville. Reminder: the French Label/La Bel surname shares three white-on-blue crescents with French Conte's, and Taylards use the label, a symbol that is in Piedmont. A label of three points is used by Plants/Plantagenets, a known branch of FULKs, and then the Conte / Label crescents are shared by FALCons/FalCONTE's (same place as Conte's). French Plants (Artois) use a red patee cross that you might keep in mind.

Sinclairs ("Commit" motto term) use a black-on-white cross, shared by the Conans, while Cone's share a version of the Conte/Counter/Comites Coat (German Tanners use a pine CONE, suggesting Herluin de Conteville's father-in-law, "the tanner" of Falaise). I had seen several times that one Dutch Burger/Berg Coat used the triple chevron alone, in both colors of the same of Clare's, but houseofnames changed it to something else. I was not mistaken. I saw the Dutch Burgers using the Clare Coat, and wrote on it a few times (I have record of it) before it was changed. Herluin de Conteville's father was John be Burgo, and so this has got to be the origin of the Taylard chevrons. The counterchanged Taylard cross is in the colors of the Sinclair cross.

You say the Taylard cross was both a patee and a flory, but houseofnames shows the Taylard cross as a patonce, and along with the white-and-black quadrants, it looks like a version of the Eaton Coat. Eatons were first found in Cheshire, and can be traced to "Etna," in Messina, where the Samson-surname SCALLops trace because Messina was home to SICELs (and a mythical SCYLLa location), the namers of Sicily. Samsons are mentioned because houseofnames once showed for them the same type cross as Eatons, but then both crosses were changed; Samsons got the patonce while Eatons got the patee. The patee is code for Patti in Messina, and to assure that the Samson scallops trace to Sicels of Messina, the Meschins share scallops in the colors of the Samson scallops. There was a Saracen leader of Sicily by the name of Samsam who joined Guiscard's crusade against Sicily. There is a Sam/Sammes surname sharing the same lion as Italian Conte's, and Guiscards/WISharts were found as a branch of Visconti's.

You said that Taylards use the "paty," in that particular spelling, and so see the Paty surname probably with the Tailer lions (round-about), and a white-on-black escutcheon, the colors of the Saddock/Sedgewick escutcheon. Patys were first found in the same place as Bistons, who come up as "Bistone," while a Bistones peoples of 7 or 8 centuries BC lived in Cyrene (North Africa), where the Meshwesh (Amazons) were living at the time, whom Wikipedia calls the Mazyes and Maxyes. Why do Maxwells use the colors of Sales, as well as a "holly BUSH," while Saluzzo is beside Busca? The Bush surname is also "Busch." In short, the Bistones do trace to Bessins and Bistons because they worshiped an erect sword as mythical Ares' sanctuary, and both the Bessins and Bistones (see also the German-Bessen sword) use such a sword in Crest. Apparently, Bistones were in Sicily, and there they got attached to Patti. It's not coincidental that Massena's/Messina's use the patee cross too.

The Holly surname uses a form of the erect Ares sword in Crest, as well as a talbot dog in the colors of the same of Halls and Hulls, which essentially identifies Maxwells with the Hull bloodline, first found in the same place (Yorkshire) as English Maxwells.

The Bistons and Paty's were first found in WORCestershire, and then the Work/Werk surname (Sinclair colors) uses lion heads, the one in Crest in the white color of the Paty lions. The Conteville-loving Sinclairs use a "work" motto term, wherefore the WERK variation may indicate the line of John de Burgo to the BERKs/Burghs. The Holly Coat is so much like the PLUNKett Coat that I feel justified in tracing to PLANCIA Magna of PERGa, a known Herod liner from the same line that married the Bassus'. The Planque variation of French Plants traces to Plancia because her husband was Tertullus (of Perga), while the Fulks are said to descend from a quasi-mythical Tertullus.

The Eaton cross was known to be a good reflection of the English Hykes/Hack cross, both of them counterchanged and in the colors of the counterchanged Taylard cross. The Scottish Hykes/Hake's cleverly use hake fish, but these probably descend from the other fish mentioned above. The single red-on-white chevron is between the hake fish, all a good indication that the Hykes/Hack family came into contact with Taylards. As the Hykes/Hacks were first found in the same place as Chives', their same-colored crosses are probably a match somewhere along the way. Did you notice that the Chives quadrants can be the Taylard quadrants? But that makes the Taylard quadrants the Hykes and Eaton quadrants too.

English Hykes/Hakes are using scallops in the colors of the Samson / Meschin scallops. I don't think that it's coincidental that two of the Hykes scallops are black, the colors of the Eden scallops, suggesting that Edens (Comyn garbs?) were an Eaton branch, both out of Etna. The BRUDENells, now suspect out of Brattia as a Prude branch, can be loosely of the "PRUDENtia" motto term of Edens. Brattia is an island across the waters from the mouth of the Tilurius. You say: "But later on the only reminder of the Taylard arms can be found on the shoulder of horse on the rights side of the Brudenell coat of arms". It's a good reason to trace Taylards to the Tilurius, especially if I can show proof of Brattia liners in heraldry.

The Hicks (not the same as Hykes') use a "Tout" motto term, shared by Oliphants that I traced to "Elaphiti," a three-island group right beside Dalmatia's Ragusa. And the Hixons/HICKsons share eagle talons with the Talons/TALENTS, smacking of the TAULANTii peoples mentioned earlier. Wherever you see talons, the Talents likely own them.

When you say that Taylards married BRUDenells, I'm sure already that this latter surname was from Brattia (on map below), for Prats/Prude's use a version of the Tiller Coat, and the other Pratts share the so-called pellet (black roundel) that's on the Tiller lion. And Prude's/Pride's use more fish. I just about fell off my chair when discovering that Brattia was also called, Brac, for I looked up the Bracks to find a version of the Tiller / Pratt Coat, but with a talbot dog on the fesse! Ignore the Brack write-up where it traces to a hunting-dog definition for Bracks. It tends to prove that Talbots (same fleur-de-lys on bend as Masci's), at least, were off the Tilurius.

Bradys use a sun while Julius Bassianus was the priest of a sun god. Belgian Pratts use the Bruce saltire, in red, like the saltire of Tailbois', not forgetting that Marjorie Carrick, who can trace to Ragusa, married the Bruce king. There are additional fish, and a "Pratis" motto term, in the Arms of Italy's Rieti, home of emperors Vespasian and Titus, conquerors of Jerusalem. Rieti is near Abruzzo, where I trace "Brusi = Bruce." Between Rieti and Abruzzo is Avezzano, which I trace to the Avis(on) surname beloved by Kennedys (= Carrick kin) and using the Comyns scallops, wherefore let me re-mention that Marjorie Carrick married a son of Mrs. Comyn. The Avezzano surname even uses the potent feature.

There are good reasons for tracing "Avezzano" to the namers of the Bessin, and one of them is that the Meschins adopted or created the garbs of Cheshire, which are in the colors of the Avison garbs. Another reason is that I trace the naming of Cheshire to the Chatti of Hesse, an area of Germany that was coupled with Cassel, while a Cassel surname uses a variation of the same coat as the Kennedys who have an "Avise" motto term. And while the line of John de Burgo birthed the mother of Ranulph le Meschin, German Cassels share the same three chevrons as Dutch Burgers once showed. Compare the Cassel Coat with that of Cheatle's, first found in Cheshire, then see the dancette (symbol of Cheatle's) in the Dutch Burger Coat (this one replaced the three chevrons). German Burgers share blue-on-gold stars (the colors of the Burger dancette) with Dutch Halls who in-turn use the three chevrons of Dutch Burgers. The Arms of Comines use a black-on-white key, seen also at the bottom of the Cassel Coat. I had been convinced that Cheatle's, Chatti, and the Catti in the Keith write-up were identical lines. The QUATRefoil in the center of the key's handle can be subtle code for Quadratilla. The key is a symbol of the Italian Sheaves/Chiava's while English Sheaves/Shaws use a "qui" motto term, suggesting the Shawia Numidians of a Cavii-possible type in Comines.

The Joseph Connection

Heraldic Josephs were traced to Josephus (the Roman historian), who was a Jewish general in the war against Vespasian, but then betrayed his people and went over to Titus, taking on his Flavius surname. Yet, it became highly suspect that Josephus, who claimed to be of a priestly line, was a son or cousin of Joseph Caiaphas, the high priest who had Jesus murdered.

The Maine's are with the double Perche chevrons, by the way, and are likely from Maine, in France near Perche. Maine's were first found in the same place as Chives, and "CAIAPHAS" is like "CHIVES." The French Josephs were first found in Maine while English Josephs, who use the Comyn / Avison garbs, were suspect with the double chevrons of English Burghs because both surnames were first found in the same place, and both use the green chevron. However, the green Joseph chevron is solid, officially called a PERCHEvron (tricky-dicky code). It's very interesting that one of the Taylard Arms on your page shows the points of the label as three triangles exactly in the shape of perchevrons. I have never seen this before, but it's perfect as code for Bellamys of Perche i.e. perfect for a label being code for Bells and Bellamys! I now understand that labels all have perchevrons imbedded within them. Excellent.

French Chappes' use a perchevron as well as the same Moor-head design as the Titus surname, just one reason of several for my being convinced of a Josephus link top Caiaphas. Which Africans are behind the Moor head? Does it refer to Numidians? Or is it code only for a Moor surname? There is a chain in the Crest of Irish Moors. German Moors use a Negro in Crest, and dark white men in the Coat that resemble teenagers, a known symbol of both Meschins and Peverels. In the case of Meschins, I glean the boys to be code for the Boii, but others say that "meschin" means "young," which I don't agree with. There is too much evidence that Meschins were named after Masci's. The Meschins have a Masculine variation, and so see the boys in the Arms of a Masculine surname. The boys surround a so-called mascle (very common in heraldry, shared by Pratts), and this one uniquely has fleur-de-lys ends, in the colors of the Masci fleur-de-lys.

Recall the chain on the greyhounds of the Bass/Bassen surname, for the greyhounds wear collars too, and then the Collar surname has Moor heads too. I've never retracted the claim that GREYhounds are code, not only for the Grey and Hound / Hun / Hund surnames, but for the mythical Graeae hags of north Africa, which I identify as the Amazons = Meshwesh/Mazyes = the peoples that I think named king Massena. The Bass Crest is: "A demi greyhound issuing out of a red MURal CORONet with a rose between two leaves in its mouth." The mural crown and mural coronet has been resolved as code for mythical Coronis, the white bird that Apollo (leader of the Muses) turned black as code for Cyrene, home of the Meshwesh, otherwise known as the mythical Muses, nine women, all code for the Amazons of north Africa. Apollo's twin sister is known to be an Amazon goddess. Myrina was another Amazon goddess, and she was laid out in myth around the Atlas mountains, home generally of the Numidian tribe that Massena belonged to. In Asia, the Muses were the Mysians, for Amazons were entrenched in Mysia, and Myrina was code for the city of the same name on Lemnos, an island of Amazons out to sea from Mysia.

It's known that Muses were worshiped in Sybaris, and Wikipedia says that the peoples of Sybaris founded Laus, the one beside Saracena that I see as the basis of the Lys rivers. The Saraca fish is in the Arms of Bar-le-Duc, a location on the Moselle river, known as the Little MEUSE. Metz is not far off, and we saw why Metz should link by its besants and orb to the Bassus bloodline. Bar-le-Duc traces to a Bar location on the west side of lake Scodra, near Kotor.

Chappes' were first found in the same place as Levi's, and then the triple Levi chevron was used by the counts of Hainaut (Flanders) while there is another Comines location in Hainaut. To see the Levi chevrons, scroll down to the Baldwins at Wikipedia's article on the counts of Hainaut. The leaves in the mouth of the Bass greyhound are expected to be for a Levi-related line, and Lupus Laevillus, who married Quadratilla Bassus, is suspect there, especially as the Bass/Bassen greyhound heads are in the colors of the Quade wolf heads. Heraldic heads were thought (by me) to be code for the Gorgon Medusa, for she was given a head symbol. The three Gorgon sisters were mythically related to the three Graeae hags.

Herodotus, who incidentally moved to live in Sybaris when it became re-named as Thurii, said that the original homeland of Amazons was not in Mysia, but at the Thermodon river. He repeated the myth theme that Amazons were all women, and met with men only to mate. He said that they were mating with the men of Gargaria, which can be gleaned as Georgia (beside the Thermodon), but also as the Gorgons by another name. I gleaned that ArTEMIS, Apollo's twin sister, was code for THEMIScyra, a location on the Thermodon. HERODotus is actually a suspect for naming the Herods. Herodotus lived near Rhodes, a term that can provide "Herod." Generally, terms such as this were mythicized as "Ares" and his sons, "Eros and Erotes." The mother of these sons was Aphrodite, the official wife of the god of Lemnos. It is known that Ares was a child-sex / boy-sex cult, which the Greek men openly practiced often with teen boys. Ares was the god of the Bistones of Cyrene, and I think we can glean that Bistones were bound to be a part of mythical Coronis, and the heraldic Moors.

The two Hun surnames use both talbots and greyhounds, both in the colors of the Grey lion. It shows a relationship between Talbot liners and north-African liners. Note that the English Huns are once again with a Coat reflecting that of Sellers = dark-skinned Silurian suspects now figuring as Tilurius-river lines. There is a question on whether the suffixes on the variations of English Huns is in honor of the Geddes surname. The German Hun/Hundt greyhound wears a collar, and is upright like the Grey lion. The Grey Coat is just a colors-reversed version of the Talbot Coat. And the Hound/Houn Coat is a version of the other English Bass Coat. Note in the Talbot write-up that they were associated with a Mr. Giffard, for Giffards share the Hound/Houn symbol.

There is a question as to what the Huns / Hounds were, whether Ananes Gauls, Hannibal Carthaginians, Attila-Hun liners, Hainaut, Huntingdonshire, Cone's / Conte's, or something else. Hains/Haineys (Hun colors) and Hannitys/Heneage's (greyhound) were first found in the same place as Ivo Taillebois, and German Hains may even be using the Grey-and-Talbot lion. The Talbot lion is red and upright, same as one of the two lions of the Hainaut counts. Belgian Hainauts list "Hainey" and use the black Flanders / Hainaut lion, owned also by Italian Conte's. Let's not forget that the Eustace cross is that also of Irish Berks/Burghs, a line that I proved to be from John de Burgo of Conteville and Comyn, for the two Hanney surnames both share stags (Eustace liners, right?) with the Hannibal/Annabel and Hand surnames. Scottish Hanneys/Hanna's share their stag heads in blue with the Staggs. Although it may not be possible to trace Berks to both Perga and Barca, Hannibal's father, Barca, had been entertained for the Berk surname, and for Berkshire, the latter being the home of Windsor castle, and then while the Windsor Crest is another stag head, the Windsor crosslets are used by the Bass'/Bassens. The Windsor saltire is colors reversed from the Annan(dale) saltire.

I claim that Gore's are in the "TouJOURs" motto term of Yonge's/Youngs, whom we will see again later in connection to Talbots. The Gore's share the Windsor crosslets, and were found to be in the GORlois code, The point here is that greyhound-using Hannitys use "Toujours" too, while I have an Arms of John Yonge with a greyhound. It's the same Arms as used by Trevors, from Tudor Trevor. As Yonge's can be shown to be Hungarians, from Huns, Hannitys/Heneage's can apply.

If Windsors are from Wends (may have been in Hungary), let's add that they were far-north Vandals which are generally identified as Veneti, keeping in mind that king-Arthur's wife is always to be viewed as the Brittany Veneti, or the Venedotia founders of Gwynedd. This is the importance of the Gore link to mythical Gorlois, the "father," essentially, of king Arthur. As Windsors use a "me" motto term, let me repeat: "The "me" motto term of Eustace's has been found as code for Mea's/Meighs..." The Windsor saltire is in the colors of the similar Mea/Mee/My/Meigh cross, and Mea's/Meighs were first found in the same place as Annas'. The AnnaBEL surname is interesting because Hains/Haineys share three white crescents with Labels/La Bels. All interesting, but complicated.

English Josephs use a "mago" motto term, and while Hannibal's brother was Mago, Hannibal's Numidian ally was Syphax, a term much like "Caiaphas." Very interesting, but complicated to make sense of, and even harder to prove as historical fact that a Jewish high priest should have come from the Carthaginian fold. But, then, Carthage was known for its dastardly human sacrifices, and God intended Jesus to be offered up as a human sacrifice by the high priest of Israel.

Chappes' were first found in the same place as the Lys/Lise surname, indicating that Chappes' were Cavii-of-Lissus elements...that we may envision upon the Lys river, especially in Lille. From the Comines location in Lille, we go to the Comines location in Hainaut, for the mouth of the Lys river is up in the Hainaut theater anyway. Thus, we have made a good path for the Avezzano bloodline to Hainaut, if I'm correct that VESpasian was named partly after the namers of AVEZzano. I traced his mother, VesPASIA, to the Pasi, first found in Bologna, and that can get the line to Eustace II and the Bouillons (flory cross = fleur-de-lys cross) of Boulogne, smack at the Lys-river theater. Something of Bouillon's family in or out of Boulogne used the potent cross, and the Avezzano bend has the potent / crutch design as a pattern within the bend (shared by the Arms of Champagne). This makes the first Templar kings of Jerusalem suspect as a line from Caiaphas, a good theory in that any gold left behind in the Jerusalem temple, not obtained by Titus' men, might have been known by the descendants of Caiaphas (as word was passed down generation after generation, or something of that nature).

The fact that the perchevrons upon labels are called "points" suggests the Points/Pointers (use fingers pointing), and then one can see that the Bradys have a finger POINTing to the sun. That spells a Brady trace to "Brattia," and to Julius-Bassianus elements there, along with whatever the Pointers were. Boii? The Panico's, operating out of the Bologna area (easily in touch with Boii liners), show a Pane variation that can indicate merger with Payens who themselves have a Paiont variation. German Tellers/Tallers use a long and curved perchevron, yet it's called a POINT! I've never seen a chevron called a point before, but here is the description given from the page below: "Red with two fesse' of silver. There is a black point. The lines of the point are indented. The point is charged with a silver BASE. On the base there is a gold lion rampant." Don't neglect the BASE, for there are two Base surnames that can apply to Bassus liners, and one of them (same place as Ivo TailleBOIS) shows gold lions. Compare its Baise variation to the Paisleys, a branch of Bologna's Pasi's/Pace's. English Pace's, first found in Cheshire, use big, fat besants, making Pace liners suspect with Bassianus liners. Or, while "Panico" and Pincs/Pinks were traced to Pincum, near Cuppae (Moesia), the "city of doves," the Paise's/Peace's use doves (as do some Payen-suspect lines). A dove is used by the Leave's/Leve's/Leafs, along with bees, and so this is another potential Laevillus-Bassus line. The Leave/Leve chevron is that also of Paisleys, from paisley of RENfrewshire, which I trace to the Reno river into Bologna. Panico's were in the Setta valley, a tributary of the Reno. Pinks and Reno's share the same symbol.

The Tally surname uses a white-on-green chevron, colors reversed from the Taylard / Joseph perchevrons. Tally colors are also the Paise/Peace colors. And while French Josephs once showed the swan (same design as in the Seller Crest), the Dale's still show the swan. French Josephs now use the footless martlet, in colors reversed from the same of Kennati-suspect Cheneys, and footless is part-code for Foots and Fothes', using one of the Levi chevrons.

Paisleys are in the colors of Bavaria, said to be founded by a Boii branch of Baia, much like PAIsley. Bauers are suspect as Bavarians, for they were firstly found in Bavaria, and while I routinely trace Rothschilds to Peter Pollock at Rothes, he lived first at Renfrew while the first Rothschild is known to have been a Mr. Bauer. The Bauers and Bowers both share green Shields with Pollocks, which is a surname like "BOLOGna." Recall the Ruths/Rothers (red Shield) at Morayshire, for Rothes is at Morayshire, and then Peters share the raven with the Bavarian Rothes. English Rothes' were first found in the same place as Talbots. The raven is the mythical crow, same as Coronis = Cyrenians. Two Peter surnames use a bend that can be a version of the Talbot bend. I had traced all three peter surnames to Flavius Petro, grandfather of Vespasian, and one of the evidences was the gold-on-black mascles of one Peter surname (same place as Ivo Taillebois), in the colors of the Pratt mascles. Flavius Petro lived at Rieti, which has an Arms using a "pratis" motto term.

It's all good reason to trace Pollocks to Brattia liners, but also asking why Brattia / Tilurius liners are connecting to lines from Vespasia. Her surname was Polla, if you can believe it. The Pollock saltire is used in two, opposing color schemes, and one of them use the two colors of the similar cross in the Arms of Pola/Pula, a location (on the map) in southern Istria not very far from Brattia. With the namers of Polla tracing to Bologna, home of the Boii that are known to have named Bohemia, what about the substantial Bohemian city of PodeBRADY ("pode" is a prefix that, if I recall correctly, means something like "villa/town)"?

How did Vespasian lines get to the village of Polloc in Renfrewshire? I showed you, by way of Pasi's to Paisley, for one, and Reno liners to the naming of Renfrew. The Speers were first found in Renfrewshire, and they share crosses spears with Pasi's. My understanding is that Peter Pollock, the first Pollock, was named after Polloc, not vice-versa. I've wondered what he was as a surname other than Pollock. I was told that Renfrew has a good number of Jews. Peter's father, Fulbert "the Saxon," was from Shropshire, where Talbots were first found. This Fulbert may have been from Fulbert "the tanner," in which case the Peter lion can be the Italian-Conte lion (these Conte's/ContaRENO's were first found all around Bologna), and in the Arms of Hainaut / Flanders. Note that the Peter cinquefoils are red, as are the cinquefoils in the Arms of Comines (France). The Arms uses five cinquefoils while the Sheaves/Chiava's use five keys.

The Peter lion is beneath mascles (in Meschin colors) that trace to Meschins/Masculines, likewise first found in Shropshire. This is the line from the Tilurius. It appears that the Flavians of Rieiti were from Brattia.

Fulbert "the tanner" was from Falaise, but there is a La Falaise location smack beside Ile-de-France, where Chappes', Levi's and Lys' were first found. The Tankervilles, said to be from TANERdevilla, use cinquefoils in colors reversed from those of Comines.

As you see two fesses with the Tellers, let's add that this is often called "gemel." I have traced that heraldic term to GAMALa, in Israel. If I recall correctly from reading Josephus, he had charge of that city. This recalls that Talbots were looking very much like Pale kin, and Pale's use a CAMEL in Crest. Pattersons/PATTIsons use the camel too, as well as scallops that could indicate Patti (of Sicily) liners.

PETERs and PATTERsons share the upright black lion. Pattersons have actually traced to the Cassius surname, first found in Modena, by way of the Sodans, and this is aside from the fact that Pattersons are said to have a Cassane variation why Cassius' show "Casano." Therefore, reject the "casan = path" definition in the Patterson write-up as likely deliberate deception. The "Cas ni" motto phrase of English Josephs may apply to the Casano line, especially if I'm correct that Modena was named as per the Modi'in location of Maccabees proper. Josephus wrote that he descended from Jonathan Maccabee, one of the five Maccabee brothers in Modi'in. It can also be noted that the Moden/Modey surname (BERKshire) is using a version of the Caen and Cave (Cavii liners?) Coats, all using so-called "fretty" that can be code for Ferte-MACE, a Maccabee-suspect line. Yes, I say that Massey liners had been the Maccabees, somehow from king Massena. Another family first found in Berkshire was the Arks, while Modane (in Savoy) is on an Arc river. This doesn't necessarily mean that Modens can't link also to Modena.

Yet another surname first found in Berkshire is the Crom (black cat in Crest can be for Cetis liners found in the Caen motto), featuring QUATRefoils in the Coat, and traced to CREMona, right beside Placentia; both cities are known to have been built as army barracks, by General Scipio, at the same time that he lost the battle of Trebia to Hannibal. Croms use a Coat similar to that of Huns/HunGETTS, and Geddes/Getty's had been traced to Placentia, believe it or not. The blue wolf of myth is said to go to Hun elements, and Placentia's Arms has a blue wolf. Were the Huns originally from Placentia's Hannibal liners? Is the Geddes link here that from Cetis? How? I can guess all day, but where do we find the historical facts that support such a link?

Note that Geddes use "majora" while Peters use "major" while Majors use a red greyhound, which can be construed as colors reversed from the German-Hun greyhound. By the way, another so-called cat is used by Berks/Burghs.

Scottish Pattersons share the pelican with Stewarts, and Stewarts were the Alans of Shropshire that moved to Renfrew with Peter Pollock's family. Modena is near Bologna so that, perhaps, Pattersons were the line to Peter Pollock's father before they got to Polloc. Scottish Pattersons were first found at Ross-shire, beside Rothes castle that was operated (if not built) by Peter Pollock.

Note that Petersons are using a likely variation of the Paty Coat, and while Taylards used a paty cross, see also that the Peterson cross is in the colors of the Taylard cross. The Peterson lion heads, in the colors of the Tailer lions, are in the Raines Coat, and then Wrens (same white lion head as Raines', but see also the Peter lion heads) are said to be from a Raines character, all suspect with RENfrew. As this picture is tracing to Modena (i.e. General Scipio was in those parts), let's add that Wrens (broken spear, part code for Stewart-beloved Brocks/Broke's) share the purple lion with Skiptons. The Wren wrens look like ravens i.e. the Peter ravens.

A thing I've been neglecting is that the Patys are using a version of the Nitt/Naught Coat, that being a surname from the Nith river in Dumfries, where KilPATRick castle was situated. It was also home to the Geds, the proto Geddes. The Pattersons and Kilpatricks probably share drops and black lions for a related reason, and Kilpatricks show love for Maxwells/Makeswells while Pollocks are said to be a sept of Maxwells. There is a Ged surname with fish, and its motto, "Durat," led me to the Durat surname that is said to be from Dol, where Peter Pollock's father had lived, as I understand it, when he was in cahoots with Alans of Dol (= proto-Stewart royals that followed the Bruce kings). I'm going to guess that Durats were Doria's that married Arduinici in Oneglia (Liguria), for the other Arduinici were in Ivrea, on the BAUTica river, while Bauts were first found in Auvergne, where Durats were counts. I had seen a white and upright ram, the Baut symbol, in western Brittany (in Finestre, if I recall correctly), and then Durats/Dure's are said to have been counts of Brittany too. Arthurs use another pelican, as do Wayne's that I see with the Irish-Arthur chevron. Wayne's are suspect as Vannes elements, and Vannes is due south of Finestre. It suggests that king Arthur was code for Arduinici in Brittany. I can add that Rozala of Ivrea married Baldwin IV of Flanders, whose name I trace to the alternative name of the Bautica.

I've checked (my files and found this: "...traces with Aubins/Albin's to the upright ram in the Arms of Finestre." The Aubins/Albins (same place as English Stewarts) are definitely a branch of Albino's, first found in Modena! I had found that an Aubin location near Auvergne and Rodez was connectable to these surnames.

I traced Kilpatricks and Pattersons to ancient AntiPatria on good evidence, where the Kilpatrick DAGGER was gleaned as code for the DEXARoi peoples, on the Apsus river, location of Antipatria (the first Herod was a son of Antipater). This was inland from the Taulantii, and not far south of the Caiaphas-suspect Cavii. However, I did not ever make an Antipatria connection to Flavius Petro. If that can be made, it may even show that Caiaphas was related to Vespasian prior to Josephus becoming "adopted" (I don't know that it was a lawful adoption) by the Roman family.

You may have noted that Peters have a swan in Crest, and that the so-called pelican of Petersons looks like a swan. I trace pelicans to two Pulcher characters that were apparently involved with the family of Quintus Caepio, another Caiaphas suspect. One of the Pulchers (Publius by first name) was a Roman politician who allowed one Brogitarus fellow to become the high priest of Kybele in Galatia. The other Pulcher (father of emperor Augustus' wife) was legally adopted by the family married by Servilia Caepionis, grand-daughter of Quintus Caepio. Brogitarus was the father of the Amyntes that you read about earlier, and therefore the ancestor of the Bassus'. Brogitarus was suspect with Brocks and Procks/Brocuffs (potent cross). The point here is that Pullens, whom I eventually discovered to have a Pulley variation, use a pelican in Crest, and thus appear like a branch of Pula > Pollock liners that got involved with the Stewart pelican. Quintus Caepio was a Roman general who found (and stole from the Roman government) a vast treasure in Toulouse, home of the Gauls that ended up as Galatians.

Amazing, what just happened. Sometimes my head does funny things as I type and think at the same time. I accidentally typed "Pellican" instead of "Pulley," and a Pellican surname came up whom I have never known before. It was first found in Maine, same as French Josephs that use the same footless martlets (same colors) as per the Pullen/Pulley Chief! And the heraldic CHIEF, the top third of the Shield, has always been suspect as code for CAIAPHas. The only ones who would like to call Caiaphas the boss is the satanic Illuminati, and I think we can understand why the Illuminati would love the chief killer of Christ.

English Josephs were first found in the same place as Bidens/Buttons, and the latter use a so-called "chapeau" cap. If not mistaken, I see caps in one or two Taylard images of your email. I wasn't going to mention this until getting to houseofname's Taylard page, where I read that Taylards were close to the Chapells. It just so happens that the Biden chapeau belongs to Capelli's! And I've known that English Josephs were kin to KAPLans, a Capelli branch, and that the double-gold chevrons of English Josephs belong to French Chaplins. The CHAPLets even share the black-on-gold swan with French Josephs, though houseofnames changed it to a martlet. The Bidens/Buttons became suspect with the Vitone/Bitini variation of Vito's i.e. from Julius Avitus, and so let's also mention that the Vito's share annulets with English Burghs (same place as Josephs) and Spanish Burgos'.

After writing the above, I got round to loading Brudenells at houseofnames, to find them with what looked like chapeaus. The website below describes the symbolism, and, sure enough, Brudenells are said to use "three black chapeaus." These and more are the reasons that Josephs have become long suspect with Joseph Caiaphas. The Burds/Birds, who use the Bouillon flory in colors reversed, share footless martlets with Josephs and Henrys, and BURDs might just be a BRUDenell branch. The Hips' can be gleaned as sharing the Burd martlets because Burds are said to be of BROXton while Hips' and Procks/Brocuffs (same Shield as Brocks) both use the sphinx.

The Telder-Brudenell Arms finally loaded to show the Brudenell half with the chapeaus around a red-on-white chevron, the colors of the Taylard chevrons. The other Arms showing what looks like chapeaus have the visors facing sinister, and sinister has proven to be owned by Masci liners, from an ancient Roman line of Mucianus that had a mythical left-hand / right-hand symbol. To the best of my recollection, a Mucius character lost his left hand, or vice versa, and had to use the other hand, which explained why Masci's, Massena's and Rasmussens all use the rare sinister-rising bend. The right hand is called the dexter, and there is a Dexter surname using, for a Crest, "weights," and there is a Weight surname, suspect with the Wade variation of Quade's, using black hunting horns with gold stripes, the colors of the Traby hunting horns. Trabys are suspect with the Trebia river, and HUNting horns can be for those Hun liners that, in some cases, look well positioned to be Hannibal liners. Horns can be code for Orne/Horn liners, and Orne is a region at the Exmes / Bessin part of Normandy. We came across Exmes above with a Mr. Taleboth, ruler of that place. Dutch Horn's (Orne colors) use the Zionist star in the colors of the same of Gace's (bars gemel), and Gace is an area near Lisieux while we saw that the same Talbot family that ruled Exmes also ruled Lisieux.

By the way, I've just learned that the Pratts were from a Pratis location near Lisieux. Brattia and Talbot liners together in that area, which is at the Touques river. Note that the Touques surname uses giant besants! The Tooks/Touque's and Teague's/Tigers can thus be using a form of the Pratt chevron. Touques liners have traced with Teague's/Tigers to Tigranes Maccabee, ancestor of the Julia of Cetis married by Quadratus.

The Chapell surname at houseofnames shows a counterchanged chaplet, though it's called a wreath. There is a Wreath surname listed with Crae's/Craiths/Crays (probably a branch of Greys/Croys/Groys), and while it uses the same lion as Talbots, it's said to be of KinTAIL. When you get to the Washington link to Teller liners below, remember that Wreaths look like they use a version of the Washington Coat.

Your page shows that the Chapells merged with a Taylard family when the Chapells were using what looks like chaplets (circles, in any case), except that each has what looks like a buckle on the sinister side, as well as what looks like a knot at the very bottom. Below the knot-like item, parts of the material of the circle hangs down, but forming yet some other symbol as if to retain one symbol while adding another to it. The way I see the family tree shown, the Chapell family that used these chaplets/circles (or belts?) married Godfridus ESCUDemore of Upton. The circular objects are shown beside this Godfridus. The symbols remind me of the Q-like symbol of the Sadowski's (Sadducee liners?), the latter coming up as "Traby," for some reason, at The Sadowski/Traby symbol is called a scarf, and because a Scarf surname shares three wolf heads with the Quade's, I reasoned that the scarf was fashioned as a Q in honor of Quade's. It had suggested a Quadratus / Quadratilla link to the Trebia river, and as the Ananes Gauls on that river were suspect with Ananus/Annas, Caiaphas' father-in-law, I reasoned that Laevillus (Quadratilla's husband) was a Laevi-Gail liner, for Laevi Gauls had lived not far across the Po river from the Ananes. The Scarf wolf heads are in the colors of the personal wolf head of Hugh Lupus, le-Meschin's uncle, and the latter's directly family had married Skiptons of Yorkshire, where Scarfs were first found.

I can begin to see that Massena Numidians in the Trebia theater, generally, had connection both with the Bassus Galatians and the Bessin, and the Talbots on the Bessin's south border could tentatively be expected in Lincolnshire as Ivo Taillebois, which suggests a Meschin-family link to Talbots from times before the cross-over into England. Wikipedia's article on Ranulf le Meschin shows his lion as upright and red, the Talbot lion too. Talbots thus become foundational in Freemasonry, explaining why they can be gleaned in virtually every topic I turn to.

While Meschins were a Bassianus line, the Arms of Traby (Poland), shown by Wikipedia at the Traby article, use black hunting horns, as do German Base's/Bassens, and because Hunters and Huntingdons use hunting horns, I reasoned that Trabys were linked to Huntingdon. You say that the Taylard triple red-on-white chevron "is part of the coat of arms of the Dutch Telders family (my mother's family). The other part of the coat is a cross (fleury/patonce) that can be traced back to the Taylard / Taylard family of Huntingdon in the UK." Remember, Ivo Taillebois was a lord of Holland. The very same Meschin family that married the Skiptons also married the English Clare's, and, as I said, Dutch Burgers once showed the triple chevron that you speak of, only on a gold Shield, the two colors of the Clare triple chevron.

Whatever it may mean to you, it was discovered in the past year that counts of Eu, which included the talbots of Exmes, used the same lion and gold billets as Dutch Nassau's, the billets being code for the gold bars of Quintus Caepio. The year after he stole the bars from Toulouse, some Germanics waged a war against him at Orange (I assume they were after getting their treasure back), and perhaps you have heard of Orange-Nassau. The counts of Orange used the hunting horn, as does the Orange surname. I claimed that Meschins had some of this treasure. It's all a long story developed over a couple of years, and when the Templars went to Jerusalem, they may have been looking for some of that treasure.

The Herod ruler of Jerusalem lavished the temple with gold. Where did he get it? Did Caiaphas have some, and did Josephus purchase his freedom with some, or by informing Titus where some of it was? The Herods were mining blocks for the Temple some three miles north of Jerusalem, a good place to hide gold (i.e. in underground tunnels). One of the Herods (Antipas) who was banished by Caesar from Israel went to live smack across the Garonne river from Toulouse, at a place later called Comminges, like the Commings variation of Comyns. Remember, the son of Miss Comyns, Adam Kilconquhar, was a Crusader.

Masci liners in Poland link excellently to Mieszko of Poland, the first-known Piast ruler, and it just so happens that the Piast eagle is white on red, the colors of the Masci wing and of the Child eagles. There is a white and red wing in the Crest of Tellers/Talers, and while the latter use two fesses, as do Gace's/Wassa's (= proto-Washingtons), compare the Tellers with Washingtons and Deals, for Tellers are the ones with a TEALer variation. The Deals share a canton with Gace's, and Cantons use the Washington Coat in colors reversed. The Masonic "Great Seal of the United States" was gleaned as code for the Great and Seal / Sailer surnames.

It's completely interesting for me that Deals are said to have had a Dole variation, for this can reveal Dol of Brittany as a Tilurius liner. In fact, ATTILA, with a Tile-like name, was of a house of Dulo, and the Alans of Dol have traced to the Huns in several ways. Irish Dole's use a billet border, and are said to be derived in "dark and TALL," a great definition of Tilurius elements if they became Silurians. The black hunting horn belongs also to Burns and Bernice's (same fesse as Saraca's), whom I trace to Berenice Agrippa in a story that's too long for here. That is, the evidence is long-winded. Berenice was of Herod Agrippa, and the uncle of Julius Bassianus was himself an Agrippa, suggesting that one of Bassianus' parents was an Agrippa. The black hunting horn is also of the Patch's, a potential branch of Pattys. The latter's lions have been linked in the past to those of the Raines', and I note that the caption for the genealogy says: ""fig 4. Taylard coat of Arms, Chapell, Raynes, Borrarde. From: The visitation of the county of Huntingdon, under the authority of William Camden, 1613."

Camdens (share fitchee cross with QUINTs) were possibly after the Cam river through CAMbridge, for Huntingdonshire is at the Cambridge theater. I trace QUINTus-Caepio liners to Julians, June's, Chapmans, and Capone's, all first found in Cambridge, and the Capes' were first found in neighboring London. However, the Camden write-up says "CAMPden," and Camdens are in Camp/Comp and Campbell colors, though I've remarked several times that the Camp/Comp Coat is a reflection of the Capone Coat. The Campbell gyronny symbol is code for elements of Gironde (its Arms use gyronny too), and Gironde is on the Garonne river along with Toulouse.

Agrippa liners became suspect with the Mieszko-related Griffins of Pomerania. Dols (now tentatively suspect as Tilurius liners) were first found in Pomerania. The Brights (Cheshire, same place as Burds and Broxton) show a Brude variation (suggesting Brattia at the Tilurius) and a griffin in Crest. Can the griffin trace to Julius Agrippa liners at the Tilurius? The Tooks/Touque's use a griffin, and they had just traced well (above) to the Tilurius' Bassianus family. The pierced Bright/Brude stars can be those of Macie's, and Pierce's share a chevron in the colors of the Tooks/Touque's chevron, while Pierce's trace with Percivals to Laevillus, who married Bassus.

A woman of Dol married a Mr. D'Avrances of Ferte-Mace, home of Macie's. The D'Avranches were of Hugh Lupus, of whom Wikipedia claims that his Flaad-like name means "wolf," when, instead, it's likely indication that he descended from, or was related to, the Dol Alans (said to originate from a Flaad). The Talbot-related Scotts use a griffin (both Scott Coats are a reflection of both Talbot Coats). Note that the Brudenell chapeaus at houseofnames face sinister (Masci-line symbol), and that variations of Brudenells are unexpectedly BERKenell and BRYKenell. To explain the latter, since Hamonds are Massey/Macie liners, I suggest the father of Ranulph le Meschin, who was styled "de BRIQUESsart." The Brudenell Coat is a reflection of the Hamon(d) Coat, but both surnames share a black-on-white chevron with Branch's, the latter term like "Avranches." The Branch's substitute the black-on-white Hamond stars with red-on-white ones, and we saw red-on-white stars in the Wreath Chief, not forgetting that Brudenell-related Chapells changed their chaplets to a wreath.

Aha! The Buckle's use wreaths! The Buckle's and Buckleys (Cheshire) both use a colors-reversed reflection of the Brudenell Coat. The Buckle Crest is said to be a "cat rampant," and while a cat is used by Berks/Burghs, it can speak to the Berkenell variation of Buckle-loving Brudenells (share a black chevron with Pratts).

Mieszko's son, Boleslaw, was named after Boleslaw of Bohemia for a kinship reason, and there was a PodeBRADY location in Bohemia that can apply to Brudenells. The Brudenell kin of Capelli's were first found in the Este area of Italy, and the Este's were close kin of Welfs/Guelfs. There is only one Welf surname at houseofnames, listed with Wolfs, and they were first found, along with Wolfleys, in Cheshire, where Hugh Lupus ruled that used a wolf symbol. Therefore, as Hugh's wolf was also the Scarf wolf, the Quade wolf applies to the Este-Welf family, which should explain why Dutch Mackays share the horse (Este symbol) with the Cheshire Masseys, for Irish Mackays share the Quade wolf heads in the same colors.

I had reported that a son of Andrew I of Hungary, George, married a woman of Podebrady. It's known that George was the father of the first Drummond, a family on the southern border of Aberdeenshire. The earls of Mar ruled at a KilDRUMMY castle that can apply to Drummonds. The Chives' of Aberdeenshire lived where the earl of Mar would have ruled. The first-known Scottish Tailers are said to have spread from the southern boundary of Aberdeenshire into the Cunningham area, in Ayrshire, where Carricks were first found, and the black-on-white talbot dog of Clan Carrick should be a version of the same colored Quade wolf. Therefore, the Chives-Crest leopard should connect to the Tailer-Crest leopard, yet the Scottish Mars use "A Leopard with spots" in Crest. Royal Carricks married the earldom of Mar, and if I recall correctly, the offspring of this very couple married Miss Drummond.

Aberdeenshire is where the Leslie Hungarians came to roost at the same time that the Drummond Hungarians arrived to Scotland. Leslie's were in direct relationship with king Malcolm III, and his royal line came to rule Huntingdon. Leslie's use the buckle, and so I would keep it in mind with the buckle in the Chapell Arms. Why did the first Hungarians use a stag symbol for their ancestry? Was this a hint that they had been Eustace liners in some way? I traced proto-Hungarians to the Ticino river, home of the Laevi, and one of Andrew's brothers was even named by a Levi-like name (I think the spelling was Levante). Eustace II definitely traces to the Laevi, if I'm correct in pegging them as the leading Levite priests in Jesus' day, for example, Caiaphas and Annas. One Hungarian ruler, TAXsony, has a surname like the Tack variation of the Tess', whom are from the Tessin variation of the Ticino. Tess'/Tacks use LEAVES as code for Laevi, and they also use a saltire in colors reversed from the Annan(dale) saltire, while a Tease surname uses stars in the colors of the Annas star while being first found in the same place (Nottinghamshire) as Annas'. Hungarians claimed to descend from Attila the Hun. Reminder: Eustace's / Staceys can be using the Annan cross, and Eustace's share the stag with several Hun-like names such as Hanna, etc.

It could be that proto-Hungarians in northern Italy were none other than Hannibal liners that retreated, with the defeat of the Huns, out east, explaining why the most-immediate Hungarian ancestors, the Magyars, lived in what is now the Ukraine. If not mistaken, they had charge over the land of KABARDINo (home of Kabars), a term that I trace to "ABERDEEN." I had dug evidence that the Huns were ancestors to the Khazars on the Terek river, and Khazars, who were ruled by Jews, were allies of Magyars. The most-famous Khazar king was Joseph, and it's known that the Josephs of Hampshire descend from a Henry Joseph or Joseph Henry (I always forget which). This explains why Henrys use footless martlets, symbol of French Josephs. What were HENry's named after? Hun-ers? The Henrys are said to be from the Meu-river part of Brittany, smack beside the Alans of Dol, and it's known that Attila, in his invasion toward northern Italy, subdued the Alan-Hun Caucasians, and convinced them to side with him. That's why "Dol" is suspect with "Dulo."

Later, the very Alans of Dol became the royal Stewarts amongst the Hungarians of Scotland, and the Scottish flag is called Andrew's Cross (colors of German Drummonds) secretly in honor of king Andrew. The Arms of Hungary use fesse bars, as do both Drummond surnames. The 'y' looks like a 'g' likely because they were inter-changeable, and so "MAGYar" looks like it was once "MAGOGar." I'm going in this direction because it dawned on me that the TAULantii may have been from TABAL, which is the Biblical Tubal, part of the Magog confederacy in Ezekiel 38. They say that Tubal elements named the Tiber river, through Rome, and while some Jewish anti-popes lived on the Tiber, they were called Pierleoni, the lines of which use lions, as do Talbots, for example. This opens up a can of worms for investigation that I might get to in the next chapter, for the Masseys have been traced to Meshech, which is often paired in the Bible with Tubal. Meshech was the chief tribe of Gog.

Syphax, after he was taken prisoner by the Romans, was allowed to live, and if I recall correctly, he was living north of Rome within contact distance of the proto-Pierleoni. Was Caiaphas from this, a descendant of Syphax. It's known that the first king Herod of Israel, one generation before the birth of Caiaphas, was living in Rome, and that Romans set him up in Israel. The Roets, suspect with "Herod," were first found beside the Josephs, in the same place as Leavells, and share a Chief like that of Josephs, and while Roets share a book with Reeds/RIEDs (there's that red-on-white chevron again), I trace them to "RIETi." Then, while Flavius Petro was in Rieti, the Pierleoni claim to be named after a Peter, a name that to the Israelites was Cephas, like Caiaphas. Why do Ready's share the swan with French Josephs?

I had a dream once that I shared with readers because I thought it was direction from God to get to the bottom of this long and difficult adventure that I've engaged. An old friend by the surname of Kepke was walking up my driveway, followed by a sickly-looking stag, and behind the stag walked a bearded man (Jewish?) on crutches. It's a riddle, but by the time of having this dream, I had realized that "Kepk(e)" was a hard form of "Syphax." As Kepke's father was Ukrainian, I viewed the surname as a branch of Keeps (beloved in the Hebron/HEPburn motto), for I had been tracing them to "Kiev," a city of the Varangian Rus in the Ukraine. The Rus were allies with the Khazars so that we might expect them to have had some relations with Magyars too, and, in fact, king Andrew I of Hungary, when he was in exile from Hungary (while his enemy, Peter, was king of Hungary), was being protected by the Varangians of Kiev. This is well known, and in Andrew's company was the Anglo-Saxon princess Margaret that would later marry a king of Scotland (Malcolm III), who's sister in-turn married a Hungarian by the name of Bartholomew, whom I trace to Bards (share boars with Roets and Readings) because they share the Leslie griffin while it's known that this Bartholomew was the founder of Scottish Leslie's.

The Leslie griffin is in the Patten/Patent Crest, and Pattens are feasibly at the root of the patonce cross of Taylards. I had found what I claimed to be a Leslie branch at Lesce, on the Sava river to the north of the mouth of the Colapis (the river of the Japodes), where a Bohemian queen was from, roughly, whose line was in with the rulers of Flanders / Hainaut (my recollection is clouded on this). The "culpa" motto term of Pattens can be for Colapis liners, for Colps/Culps are listed with Cope's while the Colapis was also the Kupa. The Pulleys/Pullens use the same motto as Pattens, as well as the same bend as Save's, and while the Sava is also the Save, Leslie's use a bend in colors reversed from the Save bend. The Save bend has a snake as does the Schere Coat while the Patten / Pully motto includes "PalleSCERE". Lesce is beside Bled (at the map's OCRa mountain that may speak to Ogurs = Hungarians), and that was virtually the name of Attila's brother (Bleda), and so note that the Patten lozengy is in the colors of the same of Hounds and Giffards, the latter said (in the talbot write-up) to be associated with Talbots. The Less'/Lusks (Berkshire) are probably with a colors-reversed version of the Bard boar, and the footLESS martlet is likely code for the Less' because the Pulleys/Pullens use it. But the Pulleys are using the Joseph martlet, right? Recall that the Pellicans were first found in the same place as the martlet-using Josephs, for the Pellicans use a tower, which is in the Deal canton while the Deal Crest shows the Save-snake design in green. There is another tower in the Crest of Scottish Patents/Paddons, first found in the same place as Kilpatricks/Patchie's. (I trace towers to the Tuareg Berbers).

It's interesting that the Bart Coat uses a bearded man, suggesting a branch of Beards...who happen to be listed with Bards. Was the bearded man in the dream a symbol of this Hungarian line? Apparently, yes, for he was walking behind a stag, symbol of Hungarian ancestry. And Patents can certainly be potent liners. It was such an amazing dream, so short (about three seconds-like), and yet so powerful in providing correct information.

So, here is what this dream is now telling me to look into. Syphax in Italy was ancestral to Avezzano elements (potent = crutch feature) that named Vespasian. The Peter liners from Vespasian named the Pierleoni Jews that were likewise descended from Syphax, and merged with lines from Caiaphas. But long before the Pierleoni proper, the Syphax line put out the proto-Hungarians on the Ticino river, and only after that did they move over to the Ukraine, where they were supported by the Rus, probably the Biblical Rosh that is mentioned along with Magog, Meshech and Tubal. I had traced the proto-Laevi on the Ticino to Jonathan, a Biblical pagan Levite priest of Laish.

Take it or leave it, I know how this can stretch anyone's credibility: I traced Jonathan's cult to mythical Oeneus, a ruler of Calydon, but previous to this trace, Calydon was identified with the Khaldi, the proto-Celts (in my opinion), who are known to have lived in Illyricum in the time of the first Romans. The Khaldi were from the Thermodon area, land of Amazons = Meshech, and Mazaca was at least on the border of the Tabal empire (see Wikipedia's Tabal article). Oeneus is the name of a river in Illyricum that was also the Una, and this was Juno, the chief Roman goddess, a name like "Jonathan." The Romans were named after Rimmon location of the 600 Benjamites (book of Judges) who took 400 wives from JABESH Gilead, a term that named the Japodes (on a Kupa river) to the immediate north of the Oeneus river, and a term that became Jupiter, Juno's husband. The Maezaei i.e. Meshech/Amazons were to the south of the Oeneus river, a good reason to support the theory of others that Tubal elements were on the Tiber river (Caiaphas lived when TIBERius was the Roman caesar).

You can see on the map below that the Tilurius is near the source of the Oeneus, and that the mouth of the Tilurius has an ONeum location. The nearby TELAVius river may speak to a consonant reversal of "Tabal/Taval." The source of the Telavius is virtually at the source of the Oeneus, but a Titius river is even closer to the Oeneus. It's very interesting that the alternative name of the Mathis, home of the Taulantii, was the Oeneum, a good reason to trace some Taulantii to the namers of the Tilurius.

Thus, one can trace the Oeneus Calydonians to the Celts proper on the Oeneus river, yet his name was used also for king OENomaus, a mythical ruler of Grecian Pisa, which was in Elis, the rulers of which were closely related to the early rulers of Aetolia, itself in Calydon. OenoMAUS was an Amazon, you see, and his daughter was mated (by myth writers) to the king of Lydians = proto-Latins. These proto-Latins were on the Ladon river of Grecian Pisa, home of mythical Daphne that traces to Daphne in Phoenicia, smack at Laish. The Talbots are in this picture fundamentally, and, as the 'u' was a 'v' to the Romans, the TAULanti may have been TAVALi = Tabali. It can explain why Talbots were fundamental with Massey liners. The Tilurius is not far from the Oeneus.

Mythical Oeneus was given Methoni as a daughter, and Methoni was a city in Messene, the namers of Messina in Sicily. Methoni was also Modon, smacking of Modena, but we should add that Modi'in was a Biblical city i.e. it was there by a similar name during the proto-Roman Benjamites. The Bings/Bengs are suspect with a version of the Chives Coat, and the Bing/Beng motto, "Teubor," is a lot like "Tiber." The top quadrant of the Bing/Beng Coat can be the Talbot lion or Chives cat, and the entire Coat can be a black version of the Bessen / Berk/Burgh Coat. If you catch my drift, the Bings/Bengs, suspect as a branch of Rome-founding Benjamites, may be using the quadrants of Taylards, and, if correct, it tends to show that Tailer liners can be from the same peoples that named the Tiber. That would make it compelling for the Talbot / Meschin lion to be of the Pierleoni.

Pierleoni lines include Bennets and Benedicts. Note that the lion of Dutch Benedicts may be holding a book for a trace to Petro in Rieti. The Rita's. first found in Rome, use a giant lion in the colors of the Debon lion, the latter surname found in the Benedict motto. Two Benedict surnames use lions in the colors of the Gernon lions, and Gernons are suspect with the Gournay associates of Talbots. In colors reversed, the Benedict lion becomes red, the color of the Talbot lion. German Benedicts use items that look like 'T' s but call them "boilers."

Mr. Kepke was a friend of mine since we were in our early teens. In our late teens, he introduced me to a Miss Peare, and she came with me, but he took her away from me, and promised her marriage. Miss PEARE is additional reason that the Kepke dream should see Syphax at the root of PIERleoni. The Pier surname is listed with the Pierce's i.e. the Laevillus line, first found in the same place as Rieti-line Roets. Peare's/Pearls use leopard heads in the colors of the Benedict lions. Coincidences? Kepke's brother married a Miss Walsh, and Kepke himself abandoned Miss Peare to be with her sister. The Walsh's use a Coat that must be a version of the Benjamin Coat. Another coincidence, or did God set me up with Kepke for helping me to make this revelation decades later? Irish Walsh's use a PIERCED swan, and Percivals share the bear with French Benjamins. The "AuSPICE" motto term of Walsh's (i.e. the SPICE surname) was suspect with "SYPHAX." When the dream took place, it was more than 25 years since I last saw Kepke.

After Kepke left Peare, she came back to me, but I rejected her. Syphax's wife, Sophonisba, was first engaged to Massena. Kepke was code for Syphax, and me was Massena. Sophonisba didn't like Syphax, and she supposedly committed suicide (in Rome) while back with Massena, though the story is not credible. She may have had children with Syphax while she was in Rome. Prior to the dream, I kid you note, I had entertained a SOPHONisba trace to "Gophers," and it just so happens that Gophers use the same saltire that is the flag of Scotland i.e. Andrew's Cross. That could spell a Sophonisba trace to the proto-Hungarians at the Ticino river. The Gopher saltire is white, as is the saltire of the Ticino-river Tess'/Tacks. Talbots use a motto term, "D'ACcomplir," that may be also for Camps/Comps.

I kid you not that I had not read the entire Talbot write-up, but read more of it just now, and fell upon a POYNTon term, recalling that Tellers/Talers call their perchevron a point. It says that a daughter of John Talbot married a daughter of Mr. Warren of Poynton, and that their estate passed to TABLeys!!! Isn't that a Tabal term? Tableys (share so-called hurts with Arthurs) were even first found in Cheshire, and as they come up as "Table," I had traced them (years ago) to King Arthur's Round Table, which was a theme adopted by the Cecil-Rhodes Illuminati. Recall the Cheatle surname mentioned above, for the Tableys were at Cheadle, and they therefore ought to be sharing the Cheatle fesse.

Poyntons were just looked up to find them listed with Boytons/Bointons, and using the same lion as Benedicts...which may reveal that the Benedict "boilers" are code for kin of Boytons. The "passa" motto term of Boytons may be for VesPASIA liners such as Pasi's/Pace's, who have a Pascel variation while Pascals come up as "Pass." The write-up traces to a Bartholomew of Bovington in the same century as Bartholomew of Leslie.

It shocked me to find that a Godfrey III -- called "the Bearded" -- the ancestor of Godfrey de Bouillon, had been welcomed into the gates of the Pierleoni with his army, because they were coming to protect the Pierleoni. This was a recent discovery of just last year. This Godfrey' family got hooked up with Florence, where Taddei's were first found that share the Bouillon cross in the same colors. But Bouillons are also Bouills, and thus the Benedict boilers should apply to Bouillon lines especially. Note the Moor head in the Bouillon Crest, what I now see exclusively as code for Numidians. Godfrey III was the father-in-law of Eustace II, and thus the grandfather of Godfrey de Bouillon.

The father of Godfrey III was Gothelo, perhaps from the Getuli Numidians:

Gaetuli was the Romanised name of an ancient Berber tribe inhabiting Getulia, covering the desert region south of the Atlas Mountains, bordering the Sahara. Other sources place Getulia in pre-Roman times along the Mediterranean coasts of what is now Algeria and Tunisia, and north of the Atlas. The Zenatas are considered Gaetules.

If I recall correctly, Syphax was a Getuli. The Masons/Massins were first found in Zanata-suspect Thanet. There is a Gothel/Goth surname using a giant Zionist star in colors reversed to the same as the modern Israeli flag. I had seen one of these stars on a coin of Baldwin VI. Why is there a greyhound at the feet of another Godfrey III of Lower Lorraine, in his painting at his Wikipedia's article?,_Count_of_Louvain

The Gothel star is used also by Hagar(d)s, first found in the same place (Perthshire) as the Shaw Numidians. The Getuli-like Kettle's were first found in Perthshire too. The Kettle's remind me of AnKETILE, a descendant of MALahule, for the Kettle motto uses "MALum." Kettle's were first found in the same place as Rollo's while Malahule was Rollo's uncle. Rollo's use a "passe" motto term that I would trace to Pasi's of BONOnia, and Kettle's use a "Bono" motto term. Bennets and Benedicts use "Bon," and the gold Kettle lion can therefore be the Benedict lion. It may be speaking to Bouillon liners of a Getuli kind out of Bononia (Bologne) and into Boulogne as the line of Eustace II, especially as Kettle's use stags, code for Eustace's line. Moreover, the Kettle fesse has cinquefoils in the colors of the same in the Arms of Comines (Artois), and the Kettle symbols are in Comyn colors. The Kettle Coat is a fairly good reflection of a Shaw Coat, and while English Shaws use "vincit," Kettle's use "vince."

Gate's use gold lions, in both colors of the Bone lions, and Gate's share a Shield split vertically in red and blue of Debons, looked up as per the "De bon" motto phrase of Benedicts. It looks like Bill Gates can be a Getuli Numidian to the Pierleoni.

I'm intrigued by the extent to which the wild Syphax theory is turning out not-bad. Half of the Debon lion is in the colors of the Beaufort lion, and Beauforts are known to be a Roet branch. Roets are from the Boofima human-sacrifice cult of Africa. They used a goat symbol and can thus be identified with the Templar god, Baphomet. The priests used leopard gloves for their sacrifices, speaking to the gauntlet gloves of Fane's and Macie's, for Catherine Roet was married to John of Gaunt. Beside Fano, there is a CATTOLica location that may have had a Getuli-like spelling before it was Catholicized. Cattle's and Blake's/Caddels use a fret, which is a mascle, and Blake's (not the original name) may be named after "black skin."

Before leaving the Poyntons/Boytons, let's mention their goat, white and upright like the Baut ram. The "Il" motto term of Boytons should be for the same as the eel in the Shipton Crest, for Skiptons use bellows in the Coat while Bointon-possible Bouillons use "bello" in their motto. Bellows (branch of Billets) may trace to BELLOVesus, a founder of the Gauls of Italy. There were Bellovaci Gauls between Belgium and Ile-de-France that the eel may pertain to. It's just that the crescents of Bellamy's are in the colors of the same of Boytons. As Bellamy's were Massey kin, note that Skiptons can be a branch of Skiptons i.e. from the Massena-Scipio alliance (which assumes a political marriage). Reminder: a PERCHEvron is a POINT for the Tellers/Talers.

Let's go back to the Taylard marriage to Godfridus ESCUDemore of Upton. Whether rightly or wrongly, the Arms shown beside this Godfridus brought the Sadowski/Traby scarf to topic. I highlighted "ESCUDemore" because it spoke of the ESCUTcheon code, and of the Skeets' / Skits / Schutz's. I have found the Scudmore's of Upton Scudamore (Wiltshire), or Upton SKIDmore, using STIRRups, which brings to mind your statement: "Later on the Telders family members and their in-laws have been related to European Nobility families as the 'van Stirum' (connected to Louis Napoleon during his reign over Holland), Von Daehne, and van Limburg Stirum." The Scudmore motto uses "Scuto" (translated "shield"), and there is a "bear's paw" in Crest. An escutcheon is an heraldic shield.

Another surname using stirrups is the Italian Latins, not coincidental because English Latins are said to be first found in Wiltshire, and from Lattins of Upton. The Scudmore write-up claims that Scudamore Upton was eventually called, simply, Upton. Italian Latins are also showing the same saltire as Carrick-Bruce and Ayrshire, known to belong to Annandale. Note that the Latin stirrups are tied by what looks like a knot, and are in the colors of the Sadowski/Traby scarf with knot. It speaks of Trebia-river elements amongst Scudmore's. The Skits and Sheets' both use the potent cross. The English Latins use a counterchanged Shield with a saltire that I've traced tentatively to same of Kilpatricks (same place as Annandale), and the Patchie variation of Kilpatricks was suspect with the Patch's that share the black hunting horn with the Arms of Traby.

I can prove that the Latin saltire is that of Kilpatricks. The Latins are said to be from Esher of Surrey, and the Shera variation of Kilpatricks is of the Sheers of Essira in Surrey. Esher must be the same as Essira. This recalls that the Sadowski's were found merged with a Gaston family, while Gastons were first found in Surrey. The Sheers use two symbols of the Carricks, the black talbot for one, and black fitchee crosses sometimes shown with the Arms-of-Carrick chevron. The Kennedy chevron has black fitchee crosses surrounding it.

The Sheers show a Shire variation that should be of the Squire variation of Square's/Squirrels, and for this matter, why is there is a square at the center of the Taylard cross? The red squirrel in the Gilbert Crest is thereby evidence that Gilberts were from a Gilbert character in Carrick ancestry (I had read of this Gilbert). Squire's/Square's use the red squirrel too, and the Gilbert squirrel is said to be "CRACKing a nut" as part code for a Carrick branch, and possibly part-code for the Nutts/Knutts / Knots (shares a blue bend with Crags, the latter sharing the black Carrick and Shire talbot). The Cracks/Cricks (using a form of fitchee cross) were first found in the same place as Scarfs and the Kilpatrick-beloved Maxwells/MAKESwells that are in code with "I MAKE sure," the Kilpatrick motto. There is a Sure/Shore surname sharing holly with the Maxwells. And that's how heraldry works, filled with symbols and motto codes for beloved kin.

The "Teg" motto term of Gilberts is suspect with the line that produced the Decks/Deckers because they too use the red squirrel. Deckers could easily be the Dexters that loved the Weights who are in-turn suspect in a merger with Traby. The latter were traced to the Trebia river into Placentia, and the Arms of Placentia uses a square.

If I recall correctly when finding a page that had some ancient variations of the Hauteville's, one of them became the Haule's or Hulse's/Hulles'/Huls (which I found surprising). The Hauteville's may have been Hulls before living in Hauteville. Note that the Hulse/Hulles Coat (Cheshire) uses so-called piles that form an 'M', and that the stag in the Crest has a symbol between the antlers, as does the Crest of Masci-suspect Hamon(d)s. We should not under-estimate suffixes on surnames. Taylards may have been a Taylor merger with Lards, who likewise use three black piles. See the black piles of Youngs/YONGe's too, kin of Ogur-like Hogers / Hogans, and therefore looking like a line of On-Ogur = HUNGarians. The Lard Crest is simple "A woman's head." What could that be code for? Gorgons? I trace the naked woman in the Elis Crest to VIMINacium, on the Danube south of Budapest = Hungary. It just so happens that Youngs and Talbots share a "prest" versus "praestat" motto term, and German Jungs use the stag as evidence of Hungarian blood. I trace Yonge's, thanks to a motto term of their English branch, to June's and therefore to the Juno cult that I say was from a pagan Levite priesthood, which may explain "praestat." Reminder: I trace these Levites to the Laevi, and claim that proto-Hungarians were on the Ticino with them. As you read that Benjamites were on the Una = Juno river as proto-Romans, see that the Young annulets can be those of Benjamins and/or Walsh's. Compare with the Elis Coat.

Youngs were kin of Gore's (= mythical Gorlois of Cornwall, trust me) while Corks are listed with Core's. I trace Gore's to the Gorski area around the Japodes, and the Gore motto goes with the Cole motto to Servitium, near the mouth of the COLapis (river of Japodes).

There is a CORCyra Nigra island not far from Brattia. I say that the Tailer lions have their tails in the CORK Coat. There is nothing in the Cork/Core Shield but lion TAILS in the colors of the Tail/Tailer lions. Add it up. Was Cork a Gorgon center? The tails are said to be erect, perhaps code for the erect Ares sword of Bistones. The Cork Crest: "A hand emerging from a cloud POINTing to a star." The finger is erect. Note the erect sword held by the red lion (Talbot lion?) in the Young Crest. See the erect sword / dagger of Irish Hannitys that look like they may be a Hogen branch, and they too show a red lion. Youngs use a "PRUDENtia" motto term that might be for Brudenells (PodeBrady in Bohemia, and the pointing finger of Bradys, are coming to mind, for the son of Andrew I of Hungary was reportedly married to Podebrady). Note that piles have points, for Points have the pointing finger too.

A symbol between antlers belonged also to Eustace's, German Hulse's use a white ram, as do BAUTs, the latter first found in the same place as Bouillons. The other name of the Bautica was BALTea, and this name I pegged as the one which named the many Baldwins of Flanders (touched upon the Artois theater), one being the brother of Godfrey de Bouillon, and the first king of Templar Jerusalem. The Bautica was home to Arduinici (in Ivrea), which I pegged as a branch of those who named of Artois.

The Normans set up minor ruling families in all districts of their empire, and these families would often take the name of a village or town out of which they operated. The Hauteville's were in Hauteville. Not every member liked the surname, and often names turn into dictionary terms out of fancy. It just so happens that while Hauteville's birthed a Tancred fellow that was ancestral to Robert and Roger Guiscard, conquerors of Sicily, both the Tancred and Hawthorn surname use similar Coats, and both use a red-on-white chevron. The Tancreds substitute the Hawthorn cinquefoils with red scallops (i.e. symbol of Sicily), which is part of the reason to convince me that HAWThorns had been HAUTeville's. Moreover, Tankerville's (same escutcheon as Chaddocks / Geddes) are said to have been a branch of Tancreds, and Tankervilles use cinquefoils in colors reversed to those of Hawthorns. The ones used by Hawthorns can therefore be in the Arms of Comines (Artois), and in the Kettle Coat. It's asking the question of whether Guiscards were seeking to conquer Sicily because they had merged with Getuli Numidians. Guiscards and Scottish Chappes' were first found in Stirling, and Stirlings share the Moor heads with the Ile-de-France Chappes.

Likely, Haule's turned into Halls (first found in the same place as Ivo Taillebois) and Hulls, both of which use talbot dogs, and it just so happens that Dutch Halls/Haule's use the same, red triple chevron as Clare's, in both colors. The Tailbois scallops are colors reversed from the Tancred scallops. It looks like the Taylard chevron was connected hard to the Tancred > Guiscard line from times previous to Marjorie Carrick. Chances are, Carrick blood in Ayrshire was in high levels with the Guiscards when they attacked Sicily, because Carricks had derived from Sicily in the first place. Probably, the Arms of Ayrshire is using the Tailbois saltire and Chief, but on a gold Shield, explaining why Carricks use the talbot dog. Officially, it's claimed that the Arms of Ayrshire use the Annandale Coat, but Marjorie's second husband was of the Bruce's of Annandale, and so there must have been some marital connection between her line and that of the earlier Ivo Taillebois. If you check the Adam Coats, you will see the Annandale saltire again, probably because multiple of the Adam surnames were from Adam Kilconquhar, Marjorie's first husband.

I had claimed (but never found the hard evidence) that Thomas Randolph, first earl of Moray, was a Meschin, and it just so happens that some claim this Thomas to have been a son of Marjorie Carrick. I had also claimed that Mackays were important at Moray, but then the Mackie's/MARGy's (a single arrow), whom may have been named partly after Marjorie, were first found in Ayrshire (i.e. where Carricks were first found).

One Holly surname shares a white-on-black talbot with the Halls and Hulls. A red stag, seen in the Crest of English Hulse's, has been heraldry called a "hart" as code for Harts, explaining why the upside-down leaf of German Hulse's is called a "HEART-shaped leaf." Verify here:

Marc, to find the most-direct sources of Taylard symbols, you'd need to find genealogies of the several Taylard branches, and check surname after surname to see what turns up. I've gotten carried away here in what started out to be merely an email. I got engrossed because I always add to my understanding whenever I do an investigation. This study has been useful and interesting.


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