December 12 - 18, 2023
Perpetual Motion Machine, Continued
Our Brother's Water-Wheel Experiment
I got faint-headed last week, and into this week, seeking the watts that a mercury-based perpetual-motion machine might produce. It would have been better time spent had I just built it. I felt to be always on the cusp of figuring the wattage on paper, which lured me, day after day, to seeking the answer. The continuous problem was that I didn't know how fast the mercury would "fall" on the wheel. I looked into about 20 calculators, but none was able to show the speed of fall or turning.
The trick now is to find the speed of the wheel when it's charging a battery. I'd need to know the battery kick-back pressure. It's about 12.5 volts in kick-back, but I have no way to know how many volts the wheel will produce unless I know something about generators. I know they have a magnet and a wire inside, and a casing too. That's a pretty good start.
Next question: as the generator needs to charge a 12-volt battery with 14.5 volts or more to a maximum 12.6 volts, the kick-back is like a pressure tank at 12.2 to 12.6 psi being filled by a pump providing air at 14 psi. How does this provide pressure back to the wheel if we imagine the wheel providing 20 psi to the generator? It looks simple enough to answer: the slowness by which the battery must be charged slows the flow through the generator so that there's a traffic jam between the generator and the wheel.
There is only one way to define an increase in volts, especially as it produces less density of electrons: they go faster. As electrons at higher voltage are made more sparse, the only way to make them more forceful is by increasing their speed. When the electrons go through the coils of wire in a volt-increasing instrument, each coil speeds up the electrons in a neighboring coil Right? It's identical to acceleration by gravity pull, except that electrons inter-repel.
If electrons became more-forceful by their inter-repulsion in explaining higher voltage, they could do so only by being closer together, yet it's known they are further apart at higher voltages, wherefore it's a no brainer that they are sent faster to produce the higher volts. It's the very definition of higher volts.
Okay, so we have a wheel producing more than 14 psi, so to speak, but the generator (or DC to DC converter) is stuck at 14 psi because it's set at that pressure. Ideally, one wants the wheel to spin so that it produces 14.5 volts. If it produces more and you have enough, set it to produce 14.5 more and charge a second battery. I assume it can be done through the one generator. Then install an electricity eater for when a battery is full to remove power from it, to keep it from over-heating. Someone will know how to do that, but I don't, yet anyway.
We're talking exactly the "toy" generators used for the smallest of windmills. Call a windmill company or salesperson at a green-energy store. Windmills start generating at around 10 RPM, and that's just .16 revolution per second. RMP or less. Google is such a pig now for finding information. I feel sure they hire uneducated foreigners to serve us the things we ask for. It's a total mess. I can't get you much information, this is completely sickening. It usually gives me one or two pages only with minimal information, like a miserly pig. Asking for the minimum RPM of a windmill should bring up hundreds of pages, but google brings up almost zero. PIG! This is by design of the google pigs.
I can't find you or me a page on just windmill generators. I don't want to know how a windmill works, I want details on their generators, can't the google robot understand English? I don't want Quora or forums to give me the answers. I want some experts in the field. Asking for the RMP of a windmill's generator, it tells me instead the RPM or speed of the blades. google offers pages with almost no information, deigned and offered only to get traffic by the greedy pigs who create such pages. How do you think they get to the top of a search? Not by giving google carrots. I've come across articles and sections on low-RPM generators, and you would think they would talk about the specific number of RPM, but, nope, too stupid and too stingy. Not even the pages that sell them, that I've visited, mention the number of RPM. Is that not completely stupid?
Found this: "Voltage was measured without placing a load on the turbine. If a load (bulb, pump, motor) is placed on the turbine you should expect lower RPM & voltage." Volts go down because the electrons are escaping their jail cell, allowing the generator to pump more electrons into the cell, and thus allowing the wheel to pump more into the generator. You would think that articles on windmills would veer into the gear ratio between windmill shaft and battery generator. But nope, I can't find this as easily as it should be.
I was hoping that gearing up wouldn't be problematic. There are belts that can be used instead of steel gears, and I think for a slow wheel this would be fine, reducing costs. But belts need a pulley, and a 24-inch pulley's not cheap. A 24-inch pulley attached by a belt to a two-inch pulley gears up by 12 times only. That is, the 6.8-foot diameter of a 24-inch pulley makes the 6.28 inches of the small pulley turn 12 times more in RMP.
This rinky-dinky size generator looks about right, but try not to buy China. These little generators are pricey because the greedy are greedy. They are nothing but motors wired backward, but just because people want them to save money, up shoot the prices into the hundreds:
A car generator, I read recently, produces only about 12 volts when the car is idling, so, not looking do-able for a slow wheel.
Water Wheel Versus Perpetual Motion
Ahh, here we go, a slow water wheel with typical shaft in table-mount bearings, and geared up with a pulley-belt combination of what looks like a 30-inch pulley tied to a 3.5-inch pulley. Look at how slow it is, charging a generator (all in the first minute):
In the 6th minute, the wheel shows it's own perpetual-motion abilities just by being off-balance; can you image 10-12 extra pounds on one side of a wheel six feet in diameter? In the 12th minute they say their using a 24-volt system. I haven't thought about whether it's better to go 12- or 24-volt with the perpetual motion. In the 13th minute, look at how fast the wheel goes with so little water. It's not the water that turns it so surprisingly fast, it's acceleration thanks to gravity. Every push by more water accelerates it until the friction at the axle is equal to one push of water. The generator is shown in the 14th minute.
The video ends too soon, just as he's starting to talk what concerns us. He says that he needs only one revolution per second of the wheel, "up to 500 RPMs," to produce 24-volt electricity with an 8-1 ratio of the pulleys (the small pulley must be 4.5-inch). This is very encouraging. It tells us that 500 RPM for generators must be the minimum for power production.
The video ends, maybe it didn't work. But we have the choice of adding more water to our wheels; he can't, until it rains. Oh, here's the follow-up video:
He said it didn't work, even though he got the 500 RPM, though it's not doing 1 RPSecond as he speaks. In the fourth minute, you see a shot of the distance to his house, where he keeps the batteries, and that longish distance (220 feet) will cause a significant voltage drop, unless he has a massive wire size. Put your wheel near your batteries.
The reason he chose 24 volts is because his home system is set up as such, but using 12 volt to the house is even worse for losing power. He didn't say what wire size he used to the house, but I think he knew he lost much voltage for not knowing beforehand that DC needs very large wire. For that distance, he probably should have used 8 gauge at least. Someone in the comment section recommended using AC power to the house so that he doesn't lose volts, but the conversion to AC, then back to DC at the house, could lose just as much.
Also, I think he knows that even at 500 RPM, it's minimal power, and so why spend money on what can't provide much power? He's got a whole house to power.
Another comment from the same video: "Hi, yes, with 24V is better in terms of [wire] losses, but your problem is you need to generate more power for the rpm you have, thus a 12V system you don't need 500rpm but rather ~300rpm to reach 12V and use the 200rpm "extra" for charging." THAT IS VERY WELCOME TO HEAR! I get it. He's saying that the wheel needs to turn faster just to get up past the 24-volt pressure. Bring the pressure down to 12, and that could work.
So, REMEMBER: 300 RPM is needed to get power into a 12-volt system, if that one with the comment knows his stuff. The man in the video had almost 1 RPSecond with no load, but once the generator was hooked up, the wheel was even slower. If the perpetual-motion wheel can do 2 RPSeconds, and geared up 12 times to 24 RPS, that's 1,440 RPM. I think we can do this. It might be too fast for your battery pack, and large pulleys cost a bit of money, so make your own to begin with until you find the right size. I'm talking off the wall because I'm as clueless as you are about what we'd encounter with wheel spin velocity. My gut feeling tells me that the generator won't slow the wheel much for just one battery.
Someone else in the comments: "I have played abit with reducing friction and I was amazed at how freely things would spin using roller bearings in place of needle bearings". For your information.
Here's his third video if you're wanting to know the next part of his story. He makes the best suggestion in placing the batteries right beside the wheel, then sending AC to the house. Perfect. He needs only a small shelter for the batteries, two feet high, and a lid. He tells us here that he's got a 2,000-watt generator, which is too big, isn't it? Does it matter? The bigger the better? I don't know how they work, and he should have talked to people before just going out to buy one. Ditto for you. Talk to a green-energy salesman about your situation.
There's some good technical information at the start of the 14th minute. An expert says the wheel owner should have twice the RMP as "your system needs," when the wheel is free-spinning without a load. The owner says he needs 1 RPSecond, but the expert says twice as much because, I think, the wheel needs to be spinning with considerable speed when producing the 300 RPM at the generator. It's just not correct to say, "I need 300 RPM," and then say that there's success if the wheel can do that without a load. You need 300 RPM when the load is on.
The same should apply to a perpetual-motion wheel: get it twice the speed that the generator needs to put out a good deal of power, and we already know to use a 12 volt system to get the power into it easier. It'll take twice the time to get a watt into a 12-volt system, but it will be easier and therefore do-able with a slow wheel.
The expert then implies that wheel, once loaded onto the generator, should be slowed to an optimal charging voltage for a 24-volt system, which is about 29 volts, for we already know it's 14.5ish for a 12-volt system.
The expert then implies that a piece of equipment was trying to convert the insufficient power between watts and volts, changing them at times from between 30 and 50 watts, and at times showing 40 volts (see 5th minute of his second video), yet the real, ongoing voltage was less than about 26 if there was zero charging.
In the 5th minute of his second video, his charger is showing 24.3 volts, which is less than half capacity, and so the batteries were not resisting much power, and it also means he wasn't getting 28 volts steady because he says he the wheel sizzling all night long, yet no charging by morning. He says, at that time in the video, that his amps were jumping around between 1.3 amps to 3.4 amps, meaning that if he was getting 20 volts and and average of 2.5 amps, that's 50 watts.
There's a shot of the wheel sizzling at 5:11, but if that's without a load, at what looks like just 2 RPSecond, note how little water was in each bucket since the buckets were tearing by so fast. The bulk power of this wheel is water not moving very fast, and top speed without a load doesn't mean much if the force moving the wheel isn't much. It seems suspicious to me, as though he's hiding something, when he doesn't let the viewer see the wheel turning fast for very long, nor do we know whether it's under a load when it's shown sizzling. For viewers interested in details, he's hiding them. Why?
There wasn't enough push power for pushing electrons into the batteries. Yet if the equipment was able to convert to 50 watts, the wheel must have been producing at least that many, which, if so, it's good news for us if the perpetual-motion wheel can do much better with a half-gallon of water, for example, as the remnant water on one side of the wheel.
Any water in his buckets is about all poured out by 3 o'clock; not good. If he aims the water into the buckets at a steeper angle to fill them more, and if he adds a top-piece of wood to each bucket not only to keep water from splashing out, but to retain water until 4:30 o'clock or better, he'd get a lot more power. I'm not registered with youtube, but if you are, consider sending him that message.
He says he used 10 gauge wire to the house. The lower the volts, the larger the wire needs to be because lower volts increases the electron density, and higher density produces more heat in the wire instead of what could otherwise be electrical energy.
The expert then says "direct-connect to your batteries," rather than going through a piece of equipment first (that uses maybe 20-30 watts to operate). Yes, absolutely, the best is connection straight from generator to batteries, but it needs to be done safely. Something needs to regulate power to the batteries to assure they don't get too much.
The expert suggests a way to salvage the batteries from over-charging, with a "simple disconnect solenoid." But if by this he means a manual shut-off, that's not good enough, because you'll eventually forget to shut it off, and fry the batteries. We need an automatic shut-off when the batteries get full, and also one that regulates power into the batteries throughout the charging process, and that's what the piece of equipment does, called a "charger." It collects power in any amount of DC per second (from solar panels or spinning wheel), and converts it to whatever you ask it to, 48, 24 or 12 volts.
Chargers (I own two of them by Outback) need some of the wheel's power to operate, and, hopefully, the smaller ones don't rob more than the larger ones. We don't need a large one for one wheel only. Suddenly, friction is not the real issue because it steels a very small percentage of the total power. The chargers now become enemy number one for stealing power, and friend number one for regulating electron pressure to the battery. Should you get a charger that does solar panels too? It seems like a plan if it can take a power wire from both the panels and the wheel together. Ask about pros and cons about using this type of charger for the wheel. Hopefully, solar panels will come down in price by the time we really need them.
The advantage with the water-bottle wheel: it never stops due to drought, clouds, darkness or windless days. It should prove to be equal to several 100-watt solar panels (provide good power maybe two hours only of each day on average), or so I'm hoping. It's not an unreasonable hope. A wheel that can produce 100 watts steady over 24 hours is like having six to ten 100-watt solar panels, depending on the region, and for panels on a roof in winter, what a headache. See what I'm saying?
When his wheel is turning at about 1 RPSecond, there's not much water in each of the wheel's "buckets," probably no more than about a glass, because each bucket whips by very fast. And so most of this wheel's power comes from the velocity of the water coming down the ramp, and striking the top bucket's side. Once it strikes, the water's energy is gone, transferred to the wheel. Each bucket gets a smack of that water, and so it's different from the perpetual-motion wheel in that the latter's water is not moving against the wheel, but gets only gets gravitational pull.
The water wheel cannot travel faster than the water travel. He's got the water striking the wheel at a bad spot, at its top. The water splashes off of the side of one bucket, and the next bucket then crashes into the splash of the water. Not the best. The water should be redirected with a pipe elbow down to the 3 o'clock position so that the splash goes into the air alone. He would then get an extra three feet of water drop, to boot, with such an elbow. It won't look pretty, and he's concerned with looks too.
Someone in the comments thinks the wheel can do 500 watts. How possibly can that be with so little water weight and velocity? If a little creek like that could get 500 watts, water wheels would be everywhere the standard in off-grid homes. The size of the pond means nothing but for the first day or two of operation, after which the only power left is what comes down the creek.
Our perpetual wheel is identical to when the water wheel is turned only by weight of water in the buckets. Our wheel gets a total of 2.5 pounds, for example, as if it were either 9 inches from the axle, or maybe 12 inches from the axle for a 48-inch wheel. I used 9 inches in the last update, but it could be wrong. The truth may be that the excess (remnant) weight on the do-work side should act as though it were midway (the average distance) between axle and rim. It would be more power if the remnant acts at 12 inches from the axle. There's hope for that.
In fact, as most of the work on the do-work side is near the rim, perhaps the remnant should be placed more like 18-21 inches from the axle. I may have wasted my time seeking the terminal velocity of the remnant in seeking the real wheel's total power. But maybe not. I can see where someone can use the math to determine the best speed for maximum wattage.
[Insert, December 21 -- I think I finally found the terminal velocity of a wheel thanks to gravity limiting it by the "slow" speed of liquid fall in the tubes. Tubes cannot circle faster than the fall to gravity of a liquid. As I write, my calculations suggest that the terminal velocity on a 10-foot wheel is about .2 revolutions per second, or twice that on a 5-foot wheel.
This impediment seems to make all talk of terminal velocity, due to accelerating speed of gravity fall, irrelevant.
I'm not sure that this new way of finding terminal velocity is justification to downgrade the wheel's full potential. Just because gravity thwarts the full-potential velocity doesn't mean that potential in weight disappears; it only means that the weight is slowed down. However, it does seem to me that, if gravity could cause the wheel to pick up speed for longer than the "slow" fall of liquid allows, it's increased energy from momentum, combined with the weight, would get more total power. I'm not happy, therefore, that this impediment exists.
The only way to get power from a perpetual-motion wheel this slow is to stock it with lots of weight as far as possible from the axle, then add a large pulley of 12 to 20 inches in diameter to the wheel's shaft. Connect this pulley to a 1-inch pulley to bring the .2 RPSecond to, say, 3.2 RPS using a 16-inch pulley (.2 x 16 = 3.2). Add a second 16-inch pulley to the same shaft having the 1-inch pulley, and bring a second belt from it to a second 1-inch pulley, now on the generator shaft, for a total of 3.2 x 16 = 51.2 RPS = 3,072 RPM.
However, the weight on the wheel needs to be heavy enough to turn the generator that fast. If it can't, use a smaller pulley(s) than 16-inch. End insert]
Medusa and Bibi
Therefore, wheel velocity is not like a perfect thermometer telling how much power is entering the batteries. The ugly Medusa here is: the slower the wheel, the more power wasted. I was lured into thinking it should be the other way around, and that's what Medusa does, lure to one's demise. The slower the wheel, the more watts used up, but not all in the batteries. Physical power gets used up to slow things, and in this case physical kick-back slows the wheel. I just don't know by how much. And if can't slow it enough, the batteries will get too hot. Is the solution some kind of power eater?
The energy doesn't disappear; it slows the wheel. It enters the pulley, makes its way across the belt, and is then combined into both the pulley's and wheel's atoms. How else? If the wheel has too much power, won't the belt slip on the pulley and keep turning as fast as it can? That's better than ruining the batteries by over-heating. I wonder, did the water get the belt wet to ruin the test on that water wheel? Was his belt slipping all that time?
If, for example, half the potential watts kick back toward the wheel so as to slow it to half the terminal velocity, the wheel still has potential watts / 2, yet if it's pumping only a fraction of that result into the battery, it has more than potential than you think. You're allowing the wheel to slow down too much for nothing in return.
That is, if the wattage wasted by sending the battery more than it can safely use, there's more potential than it appears by the relative wheel velocity. If the load is wasting a third of the potential watts because the charger is wasting them to protect the batteries, does that look good to you?
You might think your wheel is going too slow to be able to produce more power, yet the Medusa has deceived you, and you have killed your own watts. After your wife discovers this, taking a shower only every three days, that's called, your demise. She could have had one every two days if it wasn't for your ignorance. Smarten up, eh?
Data on water wheels might tell us what non-loaded speeds ought to be to get to the first signs of battery power. The water-wheel owner suggested he had been convinced he needed a threshold 500 RPM for a 24-volt system, but there's a difference between that speed at non-load versus load, and there's also a difference between light load and heavy load. Is it a large difference between light load and heavy? At what load should he be getting his 500 RPM.
I think the reduction in wheel speed due to load level is proportional to the watts lost in transfer to create the load. The battery won't get the whole load unless the generator is wired direct to the batteries. Your wheel might have just the right weight and size to power your battery pack without the protection of a charger, or you could arrange for it easily by changing the weight. Or, you could decide to get the maximum power from the wheel and add an additional battery(s) to protect the first one(s).
If we offer the Medusa 54.5 / 2 watts, and she spits some back into our faces, offering her 218 isn't going to change her attitude. It'll just making her hotter, and she'll spit back more. If she's in the mood for only 12 watts, you'd better not try to give her more. Give your surplus to thirsty Bibi instead. One not-so-nice option is to put another generator on the other side of the wheel, and it would be nice if this generator didn't take power to Bibi until Medusa is mainly full.
A way to do it automatically is to get a device that opens and shuts an electrical switch. Stick this devise on the wire to Medusa, and have it set so that when the kick-back (i.e. the voltage) reaches a certain level, it opens a switch in the other wire to Bibi. Wheel power can now get to Bibi. If Bibi's already full, then tuff, the wheel power goes to waste, but if Bibi is thirsty, you get to have more power.
Where should you put the special devise that opens Bibi up for business? One option is just before the battery charger to Medusa, for this charger is what decides to reduce power to Medusa.
On the other hand, you can have the devise between the charger and Medusa if the devise is set to "feel" the power in that part of the wiring, and if it's set to open the switch to Bibi when the Medusa is full. But there's a better way that eliminates the wire and generator to Bibi, be happy if it can be done.
The electrons between generator and charger will not be in the same condition as the electrons between the charger and the battery on float charge, by which time the charger has reduced the volts from 14.5 or more to 13.5 (only a trickle gets into the battery). Therefore, when the charger clicks from regular "absorption" charge mode to float charge, the kick-back pressure on the wheel is at maximum.
When I say "gearing up," I mean to faster RPM at the generator. Gearing up will slow the wheel. Gearing up forces the generator shaft to spin faster, but that takes more work, and so the wheel slows because it's producing more work. If the wheel is too strong even after filling Bibi, we don't need to gear down to a slower speed because it would be better just to remove some water weight in the tubes.
I added a chicken scenario to the last update, in case you missed it, that had this conclusion: "The new insight is: the mercury wheel PRODUCES watts on every wheel [size] according to the same feet travelled. The two chickens...represent the force of the mercury in watts, and they produce twice as many watts by going twice as far as two chickens on a wheel half the size. It's not a wonder I was going crazy. I hope I now have this figured correctly. REMEMBER: watts to the generator are always proportional in feet travel around the wheel."
If your wheel is barely turning at float mode, it doesn't necessarily mean the wheel has no muscle to produce more than 13.5 volts. It could mean it's time to give Bibi some drink. She loves biting electron tea with a dash of acid juice.
Bibi needs her own charger unless you know how to rig one charger to do two battery banks. One way that I can see is to shut off all power to the Medusa bank. She doesn't need float stage, it's a total luxury. The batteries won't go dead if they are left with zero power for even a month, and you're probably using them that very day, anyway.
So, we need an "automatic transfer switch" that cuts power to one devise (Medusa) and brings that same power instead to the gate (a normal switch) at Bibi's place. If Bibi is thirsty, the charger will sense it, and automatically flip back to regular charge mode, until Bibi is full. See how this works? You're the waiter, because you're always waiting for your power.
I have no idea whether there exist automatic transfer switches that allow you or me to control the specific voltage level at which they transfer power. But manual transfer switches are common, and you could go to it whenever you think the first battery bank is about full. The charger will protect the batteries from overload if you neglect to do it. In fact, by using a manual one, you can choose to fill Bibi at any point before Medusa is full, and this can even be done on the same generator line i.e. you don't need a second generator for a line to Bibi. The generator will never know, nor care, whether you're serving one gal or the other.
The option of sending power to Bibi when Medusa is only 3/4 filled is a super advantage anytime you have used more power than average. It takes longer to charge the final quarter of the battery than any other quarter before that time. Instead of spending time to get the last quarter into Medusa, you could be giving maybe filling Bibi's tank by half.
You can of course serve them both simultaneously if you know you have enough power to do so on a regular basis. But in that case, you could just combine the two into one bank and forget about opening and closing switches. There are reasons for having two separate banks, and so you have that option. I'm defining Bibi here as the battery to serve when the wheel is wasting its spins. She can be a small battery...which is why I named her, Bibi. You can use her for luxuries such as the toaster.
Or you can change her name to Big Momma, it's your call, you're the waiter, you set the tables. You can ask your wheel, "hey Dizz, you got enough spin for Big Momma?" It's gonna say, "sure, with about .75 pounds more per bottle, I think I can swing it."
Nothing can be simpler here: wheel velocity is proportional to the work performed, some of it a sacrifice, and velocity needs to be fast enough to make electrons travel down a wire.
Electrons need to be pushed fast enough across a magnetic field (in the generator) to get them to transfer atom-to-atom in the wire. Electrons stick to their protons, and the generator needs first to break them free...from electron-proton attraction. It can't break them free in the first foot of wire only. It's got to break them free from all the protons in the whole wire, from the generator to the batteries, otherwise none get broken free.
These electrons form a train in the wire. The whole train needs to be moved to get electrons into the battery's acid. From there they do their thing by congregating at the positive terminal. The longer the train, the more work needed, which is why the water-wheel owner needs wider wire, to give the electron train more tracks to travel on, easing the way through the protonic jungle. The generator may be forming a train in a too-thin wire, but the electrons are turning to heat by spilling out of the wire rather than getting to the battery. If you put the wheel near the battery, you can get a too-large wire because the cost won't be high to step it up one gauge larger. If ever you want more water per bottle, or more bottles from an added wheel, you'll be glad this main wire is big enough to handle the power without electron wastage.
Generator companies will probably tell you: the faster the wheel, the better, until a certain point that harms the generator. This is a game between the wheel's total power, the particular generator chosen for it, and the number of batteries. It may be true that if the water-wheel owner chose a smaller generator than one capable of sending 2,000 watts, he could have gotten power at less than 300 RPM. This is a detail you'd want to know if you are wanting to install a larger generator for when you make a second wheel: you may be wasting power at the generator until that second wheel is in operation.
I really don't think there is kick-back to the wheel from the generator when it's not connected to a battery. It doesn't take much work to turn it in spite of electrons and generator magnets opposing each other. If the generator pushes electrons, then their is opposition between them. But at low speeds, it isn't much, which could suggest that it isn't much at high speeds either, without a load. If there is no load, the electrons go nowhere even though the generator is sizzling at thousands of RPM. You can't push electrons out of a wire with a generator hooked up only to a wire. That wire needs to be grounded to get the electrons into train mode. I suppose that God created this situation, or there would be no such thing as electricity.
As the generator has coils of wire, nothing much more complicated than that, it produces higher voltage from what amps the wheel delivers to it. Higher voltage is faster-moving electrons, in spite of how the goofs think electricity works. They have electrons flying at the near-speed of light, how utterly stupid. It's just a train, stupids. As one train car is pushed forward at the generator, one train car at the end of the line falls into the battery simultaneously i.e. INSTANTLY. The electrons are not flying INSTANTLY through the wire from A to B.
It doesn't matter how fast the generator coils push the electrons off their protons inside the generator, electrons are falling into the battery simultaneously, INSTANTLY. The effect occurs faster than the speed of light, if it's instant, but the electrons don't move at the speed of light. Higher voltage is faster trains, and consequently less-dense train cars (= less amps).
It's like you holding a pin-pong paddle, and someone's tossing you a ball every second, each coming in at the same velocity. You then smack them into another direction at a faster speed so that there's more distance between balls. That's less density of balls, but faster, more-powerful balls. That analogy is the increase in volts.
When the battery's acid or charger resists incoming electrons, that increases electron density in the wire (between battery and generator) as compared to the electrons going into the ground rather than entering the battery cell. The battery / charger causes greater train congestion than would otherwise be the case. The ideal situation is no congestion, but larger-diameter wires can do only so much to reduce congestion if the wheel is sending too many ping-pong balls per second. The battery system will slow the wheel only so much, perhaps not much at all, and the charger will re-route the surplus electrons to their grave. You can view this as the power being eaten rather than used.
I assume the kick-back comes in amps. Amps are defined as more electrons passing a certain point per second = higher density of electrons = more train congestion. The greater the kick-back, the greater the amps. Therefore, the automatic devise to open the gate to Bibi probably "feels" the amps, and when they are high enough, it opens the gate. There has got to be a devise like that. You can use it along with a manual transfer switch so that you can shut power, at your choosing, to this devise, and simultaneously transfer power to Bibi...if you want it there earlier than the devise will send it. It's not very complicated to arrange for this situation. The power miser could use every advantage possible.
A battery charger for solar panels automatically stops or re-routes (I'm not sure which) almost all electron flow, even if the sun is blistering at high noon, when the batteries are full, and moreover it slows electron flow as the battery is becoming full. The charger is the tap opening / closing by different amounts, like momma taking protective care of her child. Can't momma send the extra power to another battery instead? Surely it can if the manufacturer fixed and programmed it to do so, but if it can't, I don't know why.
The charger has a place to hook up the power wire. If one hooks up a second wire to that same place, it can be taken to a second charger to fill Bibi, or it can be taken to Bibi directly if you know the wheel hasn't enough power to harm her once Medusa is full. Put a fuse in the line to Bibi, anyway, just in case.
The charger probably has no automatic way to take power elsewhere because it's so easy for us to do with a second power wire. However, by installing a power wire from the charger to Bibi, you keep power on to Medusa while it's going to Bibi, wasting the float-stage electrons to Medusa. It would be better to cut her off and send the whole package to Bibi. How much better, I don't know, but I do know that the float voltage is almost as high as regular-charge mode i.e. it could be very helpful toward Bibi.
You don't need to take the power all the way to the charger; you can split the main power from the wheel in any electrical box (a few inches large, cheap) at any place along that wire. Some goes to Medusa's charger, and the rest automatically goes elsewhere, such as your manual switch to Bibi, or the devise that automatically opens the gate to Bibi. See how easy this is? Putting a fuse in the line to Bibi and the charger is easy as pie too. You don't need a breaker box for this because the fuse will never likely blow if Bibi has her own charger. Just use in-line fuses, but keep them off of combustible materials in case they get prolonged hot rather than burning out fast. Put a piece of wax on them to indicate that they have gotten hot sometime in the past.
The charger has an output wire that goes to the inverter. This is daddy. He's married to momma. They work together. Momma sends electrons carefully through the battery pack to daddy. He re-arranges them in packets of 120 volts, and sends them back-and-forth in the wiring of the house i.e. AC electrical flow.
If your wheel is dedicated to the water pump alone, you don't need expensive daddy; spend the money instead on a DC pump. If it runs on 12 volts while your batteries are putting out 12 volts, oye, you just put a wire to it from the batteries. How? Oye, the power wire (black or red) from the positive terminal of the battery to the pump's power wire, and the other wire from the negative terminal to the other pump wire. Add an in-line fuse of a size recommended by the pump's paperwork. You're done, if the pump comes with an automatic shut-off / turn-on capability.
I've just learned that, instead of pumping water into the typical, pressured water tank, which is a HUGE guzzler of electrical power, there are DC pumps turning on automatically when the tap is open, and shutting off when the tap is closed. Wow, what a great idea.
But if the wire going to the AC pump in your deep well is too small for 12-volt power, and it probably is, that's going to cost a pretty penny to upgrade. If you decide on spending the money instead on daddy, in spite of his losing a few percentage points of total power when swapping DC to AC, you can then have power to the lights too, or at that dandy toaster. You can hook the inverter to the already-there main electrical panel as easily as three turns of three screws in the panel box, and then the wheel power can get to anywhere in the house just like when you were on grid power.
For added expenditure, if you think your well can run dry and burn out the pump (not good when you can't buy or sell), there are DC pump controllers that shut the pump off when water is not there:
Ten or 12 spokes-and-bottles would be better for keeping the wheel going at a slower speed than 8 spokes, but is slowest speed any good? Probably not. If the 12-volt generator needs 300 RPM to start producing appreciable power, then slowest speed is not what we want. However, added spokes and bottles add power. It's easy to add spokes and bottles to the same machine. Plan for 16 bottles per machine. There's room.
Look at the wheel at about 1:40 with water falling on it from above. It's flying:
the If I can get this wheel to turn plenty enough, I'll probably spend the time to build a shed near my electrical panel at the back of the house. I'll build one wheel, to hold water, but make enough room in the shed for one more, then just store all the materials in there for making them should they ever be needed. I don't think the shed needs a front wall to protect from wind or snow, just a roof to protect from rain. The shed can be become a wood or tool shed without the wheel.
I'm already thinking to make my first wheel ten feet wide. I'm that sure that it will turn perpetually. The wheels are simple enough to build. I can mix my mercury with water for the first one. I'll spend extra on larger bearings and a long rod upon which more than one machines can turn. The rod can be supported between two machines in the middle to assure no bending, and the floor needs double/triple joists under the supports for this rod. Nice and sturdy. I'm just worried about sound entering the house, and so the wheel nearest the house wall should have some distance in case I need to add sound insulation.
It dawns on me here that some sound insulation wrapped around the tubes could lower the sound by hopefully one-third. Or, having the tube inside a larger tube might accomplish roughly the same.
I'm wondering what sort of metal balls / pellets I can put into the water. Round, of course, to get them to transfer fastest from side to side of the tubes. The water will help to motivate them. Heavy water. Going nuclear. There's probably a bulk price somewhere for these 1,000 steel balls weighing 7.7 pounds per unit ($35.99). Adding even two or three pounds to each water bottle seems like a plan. Or 6.7 pounds of smaller lead balls (quieter?) for almost twice the price, though lead's almost 1.5 times the weight of steel per volume.
Weight of a 10-Foot Wheel
[Insert -- Don't build a 10-foot wheel until reading about it in the next update. A smaller wheel may be necessary.]
Where the remnant weight on a 4-foot wheel is 9 inches from the axle, it's 18 inches from the axle on an 8-foot wheel, and even more on a 10-foot wheel. But I'm not even sure that it's as small as 9 inches on a 4-foot wheel. I suppose there's no sense wondering, just build a wheel and see how it performs. But I can't do a 10-foot wheel in the house. I don't want to waste time on a 4-foot wheel.
I'm thinking that a 10-foot wheel can do with 8-foot spokes, in which case the outer ends of all tubes, each about 42-inches long and 4 inches in diameter, go past the ends of each spoke a distance of 1 foot. Tubes are at right angles (90 degrees) to the spokes.
In other words, the end of each spoke is attached to one tube at a point 1 foot from its outer end. The inner end of the tube is attached to the end of a neighboring spoke straight-forwardly, but some arrangement needs to be made to attach the outer ends to the spokes because all spokes don't align like they do with a wagon wheel. With this wheel, each spoke is bolted to a neighboring spoke so that, if a wheel has 8 spokes, each being a piece of .75" x 5.5" pine (known as a 1 x 6), the spokes combined are 8 x .75 inches = 6 inches thick. Each spoke is then .75" from a spokes to either side of it, and so each spoke-end misses the middle (the middle of its 4-inch thickness) of each tube by .75 inches.
Each spoke end is cut at a 45-degree angle to accommodate the tube sitting flat on its cut edge. One piece of board 8 feet long makes two spokes, so cut both ends at 45 degrees. Building can't get any simpler. Any momma who can operate a sewing machine can also make one of these wheels.
Ideally, the tube's perfect middle should be seated on the spoke end. Each spoke end should therefore have a piece of wood, only at the end, to better accommodate the tube when affixed to it with tight strapping. The shock of water transfers from tube-end to tube-end will be substantial if the wheel turns at a good clip; it's best to attach tube ends reliably to last years, which additionally means: no screws; bolts and washers only to affix the strapping.
The following is in the last update as per a 4-foot wheel; just change the numbers accordingly for a larger wheel:
Here's how the wheel looks. The red and orange lines are the bottles/tubes, the black lines are the spokes. View the larger circle as the clock (not a part of the wheel). Mercury is in grey. Spokes are 16-18 inches (take your pick) to where the inner ends of tubes attach, and tubes are 18 inches, all drawn essentially to scale. The water/mercury at the 3 o'clock spoke is at 4:30 on the clock; the water/mercury at the 9 o'clock spoke is where the bottom of the tube meets the spoke.
All four tubes on the horizontal and vertical spokes are perfectly balanced because the mercury in both the 9 and 3 o'clock spokes are the same distance to a vertical line (not shown) though the axle. That's what counts. The mercury in the other two spokes are, at average, both about 9 inches from a vertical axle line. However, at any moment, with additional turn/spin in the clockwise direction, the 12 o'clock spoke gets the liquid to the outer side of the wheel while the liquid at the 6 o'clock spoke transfers toward the axle line, giving the 3 o'clock side of the wheel a big advantage.
Study of all eight spokes in this way will show that the leverage/power advantage is equal on both sides of the wheel...until it spins just a tiny fraction, and by the time it has spun a 1/16th turn (after the position you see in the diagram), the 3 o'clock half of the wheel has a significant weight advantage. Then, after another 1/16th turn, 1/8th in total, the wheel goes back to even-steven (exactly how it's positioned in the drawing), thereafter to repeat repeat repeat perpetually. It means that for an entire 1/8th turn, the 3 o'clock side has the advantage, and therefore continually has the advantage but for a fraction of a 1/8th turn when all is even on both sides.
It's made me realize that the remnant's advantage should be located on the outer rim of the wheel. It's something I'll explore first thing next update because it's a big deal if correct. Instead of 9 inches, 24.
Here's the threaded cap you'll put at the outer end of each tube, along with this threaded adapter (not cheap). Or, how else can you get into each tube to change the water volume at less cost? Cut the glued cap off and glue on a new cap. BUT CAUTION: if it leaks in the tribulation, your glue will probably have hardened in the can by then. Always have lots of teflon tape or pipe-thread dope in a tribulation situation, which is needed if you decide to go with threaded caps.
I'm reading: "Pine's density fluctuates between 22 lb/ft³ and 53 lb/ft³". Okay, dry pine, which yours will be eventually if purchased wet, is about 24 pounds per cubic foot, and therefore 24 / 12 = 2 pounds per 1-foot long of a 1" x 12" board, and 1 pounds per a 1-foot long 1 x 6 board. Therefore, each spoke will weigh 1 x 8 = 8 pounds, or 64 pounds only for an 8-spoke machine, and twice that for a 16-spoke machine.
The weight of 4-inch PVC tubing is, according to a chart, 2 pounds per running foot when the wall thickness is a quarter-inch (this is schedule-40). But I think thin PVC tubing, used for septic systems everywhere, will handle the water transfer, and it's almost three times thinner, or about .7 pounds per foot. On a 10-foot wheel with 42-inch tubes, a machine with 8 spokes gets 3.5 x .7 x 8 = 20 pounds.
As these tubes have a 4-inch inside diameter, they can each be filled with a maximum 2" radius x 2" radius x 3.14 (pi) x 21" = 264 cubic feet of water. That fills half the tubes (explains the 21 inches). A U.S. gallon has 231 cubic inches, meaning these tubes can accommodate 1.14 gallons = 1.14 x 8.34 = 9.5 pounds per bottle. That looks like some good power to me.
It should be equivalent to a 9.5-pound remnant weight AT LEAST 20 inches from the axle of a 40-inch wheel. If the remnant turns out to belong at the middle of the 60-inch radius of the 10-foot wheel, then the remnant will be like 9.5 pounds 30 inches from the axle of a 60-inch wheel. That to me looks like some hefty power.
Each 8-spoke wheel now gets an additional 83 pounds for water, for a total of 64 + 20 + 76 = 160 pounds so far, and that's about the full weight aside from any bracing you may want for the spokes, keeping in mind that the tubes act as bracing because they connect all spoke ends i.e. you may need no additional bracing.
You don't include the axle rod as weight because you want to know how much wheel weight is in the axle rod. I'm reading: "The maximum capacity of a steel round bar to support weight is calculated using the following formula: Maximum Capacity = (pi x (D^2))/4 x * σ, where D is the diameter of the bar and σ is the yield stress of the steel." I don't know what the figure is for the yield stress of any steel. If you want to figure out how the rod-bend-capacity calculator below works, or even if it's what we need, help your self to the headache, or just buy an oversized rod for the job. I figure 1.5 inch in diameter in mild steel, for the machine above weighing 160 pounds, will do when just one foot of rod exists between two, table-mount bearings. Or get more rigidity than mild steel to play it safer. If the rod bends minimally, the bearings will wear out faster. This wheel will turn slow, but 24 hours every day; why skimp on rod thickness?
If the wheel is too powerful at that float stage, it can over-heat the battery. One solution is one you would like: use a standard battery charger ($50 or less) from a hardware store that plugs into your electrical socket (i.e. runs on AC). If you go that route, you need a DC to AC inverter, available at the hardware store. You will lose watts by going to AC into this charger, and it then goes back to DC into the battery, not the best set-up when the wheel itself has a relatively minute wattage capacity to begin with.
A generator keeps the DC all the way into the battery; you lose a few watts only when converting the battery power (with an "inverter") to the AC water pump, unless you use a DC pump. Some people on solar or wind do that.
In the last update, a hand-held generator was shown that, at about 3 RPS, put out 90 watts at 5 volts (equal in force to 32 watts at 14 volts). This generator provides choices of volt output from 5 volts to, if I remember correctly, 15 volts. Charging 12-volt batteries needs about 14-15 volts. Your car alternator charges at about that voltage.
I'm not an expert in this field. I'm trying to show that this wheel system is doable, in case you have doubts or are totally unaware of the workings needed. I don't see why you can't use a car alternator to charge your battery, but inquire.
The wheel doesn't have a volt-level regulator, but you could install one, called a DC to DC converter (locate it between generator and battery). You can set the standard converter (small-size box) to a choice of volt outputs, but when you've set it to 14.5, it won't go the float requirement by itself. There are chargers self-regulating battery charge, which go to "float charge" all on their own. All solar and wind power systems use the float charge (absolutely necessary).
For a tribulation situation where the battery is needed for 1,260 days, and if you want to use it deeply daily, then this is important: "Depending on the manufacturer, the type of battery, its depth of discharge [= biggest spoiler usually], and the operating temperature, a battery’s cycle life can range from 500 to 8,000 cycles." That is, you can discharge and recharge it 500 times when you are doing a poor job of it, but more than 1,260 times when you are doing a mediocre job. It's do-able, but can't buy a battery today and use it 10 years from now. You buy it as close as possible to the 1,260 days. It can be kept on float for a few years without much incapacitation.
So far, I see no major obstacles to using a perpetual motion machine. If you want to try a six- or eight-foot wide wheel with 4-inch plastic tubing filled with water, go for it. The volume of a tube: pi x radius x radius x length. A 4-inch PVC tube: 3.14 x 2 x 2 x 36 inches = 452 cubic inches, though we can fill only half the tube maximum (or the wheel is counter-productive), which is 226 cubic inches, or 226 / 231 = .98 U.S. gallon (= 231 cubic inches). That's 8.3 pounds! I'm seeing mega-watts, maybe enough for a couple of pieces of hot toast once in a while.
Four-inch PVC pipe comes in thin-walled, very light, but as there's a question on whether it will become ruined over time, have some back-up, perhaps the heavy-walled type. It's your water-supply life-line; spending extra on 24 feet of pipe (does eight spokes) is a good insurance policy. These 36-inch tubes makes the wheel 8 feet in diameter; see my design in the last update (sorry, no drawings).
Aside from these tubes, the weight of an 8-foot wheel consists of four pieces (spokes) of 8-foot long, good-grade (straight, dried, won't warp later)) wood, and the water/mercury. That's all. It all sits on a good-quality axle. The only friction is from the wood, because we don't count the friction caused by the weight of liquid, because it's what makes the wheel turn perpetually, and thus it defeats its own friction. If you are using a large wheel, pay good dollars for a highly-frictionless axle. Bearings have friction ratings. See "bearing" last update for two types that can apply to this "machine." See last section in the last update for how to build the wheel, but use stronger than 1" x 6" wood if you are using heavy liquid weights, and consider strips of aluminum "angle-iron" attached to the wood spokes to keep them straight, if needed.
Here's all four Gospels wrapped into one story.
For Some Prophetic Proof for Jesus as the Predicted Son of God.
Also, you might like this related video:
Pre-Tribulation Preparation for a Post-Tribulation Rapture